https://polarresearch.net/index.php/polar/issue/feed Polar Research 2022-06-23T14:35:55-07:00 Helle V. Goldman helle.goldman@npolar.no Open Journal Systems <p><em>Polar Research</em> is the international, peer-reviewed journal of the Norwegian Polar Institute. The scope of&nbsp;<em>Polar Research</em>&nbsp;encompasses research in all scientific disciplines relevant to the polar regions. These include, but are not limited to, the subfields of biology, ecology, geology, oceanography, glaciology and atmospheric science. Submissions from the social sciences and those focusing on polar management and policy issues are welcome. Contributions about Antarctica are particularly encouraged.</p> https://polarresearch.net/index.php/polar/article/view/6310 Five decades of terrestrial and freshwater research at Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard 2022-04-19T09:13:13-07:00 Å.Ø. Pedersen aashild@npolar.no P. Convey emma.csemiczky@openacademia.net K.K. Newsham emma.csemiczky@openacademia.net J.B. Mosbacher emma.csemiczky@openacademia.net E. Fuglei emma.csemiczky@openacademia.net V. Ravolainen emma.csemiczky@openacademia.net B.B. Hansen emma.csemiczky@openacademia.net T.C. Jensen emma.csemiczky@openacademia.net A. Augusti emma.csemiczky@openacademia.net E.M. Biersma emma.csemiczky@openacademia.net E.J. Cooper emma.csemiczky@openacademia.net S.J. Coulson emma.csemiczky@openacademia.net G.W. Gabrielsen emma.csemiczky@openacademia.net J.C. Gallet emma.csemiczky@openacademia.net U. Karsten emma.csemiczky@openacademia.net S.M. Kristiansen emma.csemiczky@openacademia.net M.M. Svenning emma.csemiczky@openacademia.net A.T. Tveit emma.csemiczky@openacademia.net M. Uchida emma.csemiczky@openacademia.net I. Baneschi emma.csemiczky@openacademia.net E. Calizza emma.csemiczky@openacademia.net N. Cannone emma.csemiczky@openacademia.net E.M. de Goede emma.csemiczky@openacademia.net M. Doveri emma.csemiczky@openacademia.net J. Elster emma.csemiczky@openacademia.net M.S. Giamberini emma.csemiczky@openacademia.net K. Hayashi emma.csemiczky@openacademia.net S.I. Lang emma.csemiczky@openacademia.net Y.K. Lee emma.csemiczky@openacademia.net T. Nakatsubo emma.csemiczky@openacademia.net V. Pasquali emma.csemiczky@openacademia.net I.M.G. Paulsen emma.csemiczky@openacademia.net C. Pedersen emma.csemiczky@openacademia.net F. Peng emma.csemiczky@openacademia.net A. Provenzale emma.csemiczky@openacademia.net E. Pushkareva emma.csemiczky@openacademia.net C.A.M. Sandström emma.csemiczky@openacademia.net V. Sklet emma.csemiczky@openacademia.net A. Stach emma.csemiczky@openacademia.net M. Tojo emma.csemiczky@openacademia.net B. Tytgat emma.csemiczky@openacademia.net H. Tømmervik emma.csemiczky@openacademia.net D. Velazquez emma.csemiczky@openacademia.net E. Verleyen emma.csemiczky@openacademia.net J.M. Welker emma.csemiczky@openacademia.net Y.-F. Yao emma.csemiczky@openacademia.net M.J.J.E. Loonen emma.csemiczky@openacademia.net <p>For more than five decades, research has been conducted at Ny-Ålesund, in Svalbard, Norway, to understand the structure and functioning of High-Arctic ecosystems and the profound impacts on them of environmental change. Terrestrial, freshwater, glacial and marine ecosystems are accessible year-round from Ny-Ålesund, providing unique opportunities for interdisciplinary observational and experimental studies along physical, chemical, hydrological and climatic gradients. Here, we synthesize terrestrial and freshwater research at Ny-Ålesund and review current knowledge of biodiversity patterns, species population dynamics and interactions, ecosystem processes, biogeochemical cycles and anthropogenic impacts. There is now strong evidence of past and ongoing biotic changes caused by climate change, including negative effects on populations of many taxa and impacts of rain-on-snow events across multiple trophic levels. While species-level characteristics and responses are well understood for macro-organisms, major knowledge gaps exist for microbes, invertebrates and ecosystem-level processes. In order to fill current knowledge gaps, we recommend (1) maintaining monitoring efforts, while establishing a long-term ecosystem-based monitoring programme; (2) gaining a mechanistic understanding of environmental change impacts on processes and linkages in food webs; (3) identifying trophic interactions and cascades across ecosystems; and (4) integrating long-term data on microbial, invertebrate and freshwater communities, along with measurements of carbon and nutrient fluxes among soils, atmosphere, freshwaters and the marine environment. The synthesis here shows that the Ny-Ålesund study system has the characteristics needed to fill these gaps in knowledge, thereby enhancing our understanding of High-Arctic ecosystems and their responses to environmental variability and change.</p> 2022-04-19T09:09:34-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Å.Ø. Pedersen, P. Convey, K.K. Newsham, J.B. Mosbacher, E. Fuglei, V. Ravolainen, B.B. Hansen, T.C. Jensen, A. Augusti, E.M. Biersma, E.J. Cooper, S.J. Coulson, G.W. Gabrielsen, J.C. Gallet, U. Karsten, S.M. Kristiansen, M.M. Svenning, A.T. Tveit, M. Uchida, I. Baneschi, E. Calizza, N. Cannone, E.M. de Goede, M. Doveri, J. Elster, M.S. Giamberini, K. Hayashi, S.I. Lang, Y.K. Lee, T. Nakatsubo, V. Pasquali, I.M.G. Paulsen, C. Pedersen, F. Peng, A. Provenzale, E. Pushkareva, C.A.M. Sandström, V. Sklet, A. Stach, M. Tojo, B. Tytgat, H. Tømmervik, D. Velazquez, E. Verleyen, J.M. Welker, Y.-F. Yao, M.J.J.E. Loonen https://polarresearch.net/index.php/polar/article/view/5525 Hormone profiles from Cook Inlet, Bristol Bay and aquarium beluga whales 2022-06-23T14:35:55-07:00 Shannon Atkinson skatkinson@alaska.edu Kendall L. Mashburn klmashburn@alaska.edu Daniel Vos djvbam@acsalaska.net Tracy A. Romano tromano@MysticAquarium.org Barbara Mahoney Barbara.Mahoney@noaa.gov <p>Beluga whales (<em>Delphinapterus leucas</em>) from Cook Inlet (CI), Alaska, are listed as “endangered” because of dramatic declines in abundance, with no indications of population recovery. Serum samples from this population are exceedingly rare. Longitudinal samples from aquarium (AQ) belugas can potentially provide health assessment reference ranges for free-ranging beluga, including reproductive and metabolic hormones. We analysed serum hormone concentrations from CI (<em>n</em>&nbsp;= 6, three females and three males) and Bristol Bay (Alaska; BB;&nbsp;<em>n</em>&nbsp;= 5, four males and one female), alongside AQ (<em>n</em>&nbsp;= 3, two females and one male) belugas, to conduct physiological comparisons of reproductive hormones (progesterone, testosterone and total oestrogens) and metabolic hormones (total thyroxine, triiodothyronine and cortisol) in beluga serum. Oestrogen and progesterone profiles from January through May from two AQ female beluga were typical of non-pregnant, cycling females. CI and BB sex steroid concentrations were within AQ hormone ranges, with the exception of elevated progesterone concentrations in four potentially pregnant females. Both CI and BB belugas had elevated metabolic hormones, which may indicate greater metabolic effort required in the wild environment or capture response. Because sample collection from CI belugas is rare, analysis of even the few samples that we analysed may contribute to the conservation of the small and declining population of genetically distinct CI beluga whales. It is important that each sample collected from free-range CI belugas provides the maximum biological information possible. Continued comparison of hormones in AQ and free-ranging beluga will enhance the interpretation of health data in both groups.</p> 2022-06-23T14:35:09-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Shannon Atkinson, Kendall L. Mashburn, Daniel Vos, Tracy A. Romano, Barbara Mahoney https://polarresearch.net/index.php/polar/article/view/7781 Extremely high abundances of Prasiola crispa-associated micrometazoans in East Antarctica 2022-06-20T06:18:19-07:00 Dzmitry A. Lukashanets lukashanets.dima@gmail.com Yury H. Hihiniak emma.csemiczky@openacademia.net Vladislav Y. Miamin emma.csemiczky@openacademia.net <p>To elucidate poorly known aspects of the microscopic metazoan distribution in ice-free parts of the Antarctic, we examined samples of the multicellular terrestrial alga&nbsp;<em>Prasiola crispa</em>, collected over the last decade in different parts of continental East Antarctica and Haswell Island. We found that the micrometazoans inhabiting the algae consist of remarkably abundant bdelloid rotifers (subclass Bdelloidea), followed by tardigrades. We did not find nematodes. The rotifer assemblages were characterized by low diversity (only six species). Nevertheless, rotifer densities were extremely high: mean densities ranged from 75 to 3030 individuals per 100 mg of the dry sample weight and the maximum value numbered in excess of 8000 per 100 mg of the dry sample weight. These data show that terrestrial algae, along with mosses, are a very attractive habitat for rotifers and tardigrades in the Antarctic. The statistical analysis showed a lack of correlations between rotifer and tardigrade densities and nutrients (N, C, P, K and Na). Our findings are consistent with the patchy distribution of terrestrial micrometazoans in the Antarctic that has previously been found.</p> 2022-06-20T06:08:52-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Dzmitry A. Lukashanets, Yury H. Hihiniak, Vladislav Y. Miamin https://polarresearch.net/index.php/polar/article/view/8343 Tusk anomalies in narwhals (<em>Monodon monoceros</em>) from Greenland 2022-06-03T08:23:05-07:00 Eva Garde evga@ghsdk.dk Mads Peter Heide-Jørgensen emma.csemiczky@openacademia.net <p>The elongated, spiraled tusk of male narwhals (<em>Monodon monoceros</em>) grows continuously throughout the life of the whale and is most likely a secondary sexual trait used in male–male hierarchical competition and possibly in female mate choice. Sex determination in narwhals is typically based on the presence (male) or absence (female) of an erupted tusk, but anomalies such as females with tusks, tuskless males or double-tusked whales occur, although infrequently. In this study, we collected reproductive data and recorded the presence or absence of a tusk in narwhals from the Inuit hunt in Greenland (1993 and 2010–19) with the purpose of estimating the frequency of tusk anomalies. We found that of the 173 whales, 2.9% displayed tusk anomalies. Tusked females constituted 1.5% of sampled females, tuskless males 2.8% of sampled males and double-tusked males 0.9% of sampled males. Biological information on a tusked female, a tuskless male and a double-tusked male was collected and is presented here. The tusked female was sexually mature, and 18 ovarian scars (indicating pregnancies) documented a long reproductive lifespan. The complete female tusk was estimated to be between 146 and 151 cm in length. The tuskless male was sexually maturing, as indicated by body dimensions, and the double-tusked male was sexually immature, with the two tusks measuring &lt;90 cm in length. Although narwhals exhibit extremely low levels of genetic diversity, tusk anomalies persist in the populations, perhaps facilitated by the reproductive ability of whales with tusk anomalies.</p> 2022-06-03T08:15:36-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Eva Garde, Mads Peter Heide-Jørgensen https://polarresearch.net/index.php/polar/article/view/8382 Tintinnid ciliates (marine microzooplankton) of the Ross Sea 2022-05-23T05:24:21-07:00 John R. Dolan dolan@obs-vlfr.fr Wuju Son swj5753@kopri.re.kr Hyoung Sul La hsla@kopri.re.kr Jisoo Park jspark@kopri.re.kr Eun Jin Yang ejyang@kopri.re.kr <p>For the Ross Sea, the only Marine Protected Area in Antarctica, available data on the tintinnid ciliates of the marine microzooplankton are mostly limited to nearshore waters near Terra Nova Bay or the vicinity of the McMurdo Sound. Here, we report results from a geographically extensive sampling across the Ross Sea conducted in December 2020. Material from plankton net tows (20 µm mesh), made at 38 stations spanning over 30° of latitude, was examined. We found 11 tintinnid species of varying commonality or rarity, many showing considerable morphological variability that is here documented. We found four forms that had not been previously reported from the Ross Sea. Based on our findings and previous reports, we assembled a species accumulation curve showing the growth in the inventory of tintinnid species recorded from the Ross Sea as a function of sampling effort and time since 1983. Extrapolation of the species accumulation curve, derived from sampling over the last 37 years, indicates that continued sampling will likely provide new species records, suggesting that the Ross Sea is under-sampled at present. This complicates efforts to detect temporal changes in species compositions, at least with regard to tintinnid ciliates. Comparing species accumulation curves for the Ross Sea and the relatively well-studied Weddell Sea, it appears that the Ross Sea may be more species-rich.</p> 2022-05-20T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 John R. Dolan, Wuju Son, Hyoung Sul La , Jisoo Park, Eun Jin Yang https://polarresearch.net/index.php/polar/article/view/8083 Ichnodiversity in the eastern Canadian Arctic in the context of polar microbioerosion patterns 2022-04-29T09:16:59-07:00 Neele Meyer neele.meyer@uni-bremen.de Max Wisshak max.wisshak@senckenberg.de Evan N. Edinger eedinger@mun.ca Kumiko Azetsu-Scott kumiko.azetsu-scott@dfo-mpo.gc.ca André Freiwald andre.freiwald@senckenberg.de <p>Studies of marine microbioerosion in polar environments are scarce. They include our recent investigations of bioerosion traces preserved in sessile balanid skeletons from the Arctic Svalbard archipelago and the Antarctic Ross Sea. Here, we present results from a third study site, Frobisher Bay, in the eastern Canadian Arctic, together with a synthesis of our current knowledge of polar bioerosion in both hemispheres. Barnacles from 62 to 94 m water depth in Frobisher Bay were prepared using the cast-embedding technique to enable visualization of microboring traces by scanning electron microscopy. In total, six ichnotaxa of traces produced by organotrophic bioeroders were found. All recorded ichnotaxa were also present in Mosselbukta, Svalbard, and most in the Ross Sea. Frobisher Bay contrasts with Mosselbukta in that it is a siliciclastic-dominated environment and shows a lower ichnodiversity, which may be accounted for by the limited bathymetrical range and a high turbidity and sedimentation rate. We evaluate potential key ichnotaxa for the cold-temperate and polar regions, of which the most suitable are&nbsp;<em>Flagrichnus baiulus</em>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<em>Saccomorpha guttulata</em>, and propose adapted index ichnocoenoses for the interpretation of palaeobathymetry accordingly. Together, the three studies allow us to make provisional considerations about the biogeographical distribution of polar microbioerosion traces reflecting the ecophysiological limits of their makers.</p> 2022-04-29T09:16:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Neele Meyer, Max Wisshak, Evan N. Edinger, Kumiko Azetsu-Scott, André Freiwald https://polarresearch.net/index.php/polar/article/view/8037 Patterns of interdisciplinary collaboration resemble biogeochemical relationships in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica: a historical social network analysis of science, 1907–2016 2022-04-06T11:20:23-07:00 Stephen M. Chignell steve.chignell@ubc.ca Adrian Howkins adrian.howkins@bristol.ac.uk Poppie Gullett poppie.gullett@state.co.us Andrew G. Fountain andrew@pdx.edu <p>Co-authorship networks can provide key insights into the production of scientific knowledge. This is particularly interesting in Antarctica, where most human activity relates to scientific research. Bibliometric studies of Antarctic science have provided a useful understanding of international and interdisciplinary collaboration, yet most research has focused on broad-scale analyses over recent time periods. Here, we take advantage of a ‘Goldilocks’ opportunity in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, an internationally important region of Antarctica and the largest ice-free region on the continent. The McMurdo Dry Valleys have attracted continuous and diverse scientific activity since 1958. It is a geographically confined region with limited access, making it possible to evaluate the influence of specific events and individuals. We trace the history of environmental science in this region using bibliometrics and social network analysis. Our results show a marked shift in focus from the geosciences to the biosciences, which mirrors wider trends in the history of science. Collaboration among individuals and academic disciplines increased through time, and the most productive scientists in the network are also the most interdisciplinary. Patterns of collaboration among disciplines resemble the biogeochemical relationships among respective landscape features, raising interesting questions about the role of the material environment in the development of scientific networks in the region, and the dynamic interaction with socio-cultural and political factors. Our focused, historical approach adds nuance to broad-scale bibliometric studies and could be applied to understanding the dynamics of scientific research in other regions of Antarctica and elsewhere.</p> 2022-04-06T06:03:36-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Stephen M. Chignell, Adrian Howkins, Poppie Gullett, Andrew G. Fountain https://polarresearch.net/index.php/polar/article/view/8002 Value of the Copernicus Arctic Regional Reanalysis (CARRA) in representing near-surface temperature and wind speed in the north-east European Arctic 2022-04-01T01:47:57-07:00 Morten Køltzow morteno@met.no Harald Schyberg haralds@met.no Eivind Støylen eivinds@met.no Xiaohua Yang xiaohua@dmi.dk <p>The representation of 2-m air temperature and 10-m wind speed in the high-resolution (with a 2.5-km grid spacing) Copernicus Arctic Regional Reanalysis (CARRA) and the coarser resolution (ca. 31-km grid spacing) global European Center for Medium-range Weather Forecasts fifth-generation reanalysis (ERA5) for Svalbard, northern Norway, Sweden and Finland is evaluated against observations. The largest differences between the two reanalyses are found in regions with complex terrain and coastlines, and over the sea ice for temperature in winter. In most aspects, CARRA outperforms ERA5 in its agreement with the observations, but the value added by CARRA varies with region and season. Furthermore, the added value by CARRA is seen for both parameters but is more pronounced for temperature than wind speed. CARRA is in better agreement with observations in terms of general evaluation metrics like bias and standard deviation of the errors, is more similar to the observed spatial and temporal variability and better captures local extremes. A better representation of high-impact weather like polar lows, vessel icing and warm spells during winter is also demonstrated. Finally, it is shown that a substantial part of the difference between reanalyses and observations is due to representativeness issues, that is, sub-grid variability, which cannot be represented in gridded data. This representativeness error is larger in ERA5 than in CARRA, but the fraction of the total error is estimated to be similar in the two analyses for temperature but larger in ERA5 for wind speed.</p> 2022-03-31T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Morten Køltzow, Harald Schyberg, Eivind Støylen, Xiaohua Yang https://polarresearch.net/index.php/polar/article/view/6351 Foraging behaviour of sympatrically breeding macaroni (<em>Eudyptes chrysolophus</em>) and chinstrap (<em>Pygoscelis antarcticus</em>) penguins at Bouvetøya, Southern Ocean 2022-03-17T03:45:26-07:00 Audun Narvestad narvestad.audun@gmail.com Kit M. Kovacs kit.kovacs@npolar.no Christian Lydersen lydersen@npolar.no Andrew D. Lowther andrew.lowther@npolar.no <p>Species with similar ecological requirements that overlap in range tend to segregate their niches to minimize competition for resources. However, the niche segregation possibilities for centrally foraging predators that breed on isolated Subantarctic islands may be reduced by spatial constraints and limitations in the availability of alternative prey. In this study we examined spatial and trophic aspects of the foraging niches of two sympatrically breeding penguin species, macaroni (<em>Eudyptes chrysolophus</em>; MAC) and chinstrap (<em>Pygoscelis antarcticus</em>; CHIN) penguins, at Bouvetøya over two breeding seasons. To measure at-sea movements and diving behaviour, 90 MACs and 49 CHINs were equipped with GPS loggers and dive recorders during two austral summer breeding seasons (2014/15 and 2017/18). In addition, blood samples from tracked birds were analysed for stable isotopes to obtain dietary information. CHINs displayed marked interannual variation in foraging behaviour, diving deeper, utilizing a larger foraging area and displaying enriched values of δ<sup>15</sup>N in 2014/15 compared to the 2017/18 breeding season. In contrast, MACs dove to similar depths and showed similar δ<sup>15</sup>N values, while consistently utilizing larger foraging areas compared to CHINs. We suggest that low krill abundances in the waters around Bouvetøya during the 2014/15 season resulted in CHINs shifting toward a diet that increased their niche overlap with MACs. Our findings may partly explain the decreasing number of breeding CHINs at the world’s most remote island, Bouvetøya, while also highlighting the importance of characterizing niche overlap of species using multi-season data sets.</p> 2022-03-11T05:45:38-08:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Audun Narvestad, Kit M. Kovacs, Christian Lydersen, Andrew D. Lowther https://polarresearch.net/index.php/polar/article/view/7773 Cetacean spatial trends from 2005 to 2019 in Svalbard, Norway 2022-04-28T07:11:20-07:00 Olof Bengtsson emma.csemiczky@openacademia.net Christian Lydersen emma.csemiczky@openacademia.net Kit M. Kovacs kit.kovacs@npolar.no <p>This study uses cetacean sighting data, acquired via a citizen science programme, to update distributions and spatial trends of whales and dolphins in waters around the Svalbard Archipelago during the period 2005–2019. Distributions, based on kernel density estimates, from an early period (2005–2009) and a recent period (2015–19) were compared to identify potential shifts in distribution in this area, which is experiencing rapid warming and concomitant sea-ice losses. Among the three Arctic endemic cetaceans, white whales (<em>Delphinapterus leucas,</em>&nbsp;also known as beluga) had a stable, coastal distribution throughout the study, whereas narwhals (<em>Monodon monoceros</em>) and bowhead whales (<em>Balaena mysticetus</em>) were observed only north of the archipelago, but with increasing frequency during the recent period. White-beaked dolphins (<em>Lagenorhynchus albirostris</em>) had a stable distribution along the continental shelf break, west and south of Svalbard. Sperm whale observations shifted from west of Bjørnøya during the early period to being concentrated around the north end of Prins Karls Forland, west of Spitsbergen during the recent period. The four summer-resident baleen whales—blue whales (<em>Balaenoptera musculus</em>), fin whales (<em>Balaenoptera physalus</em>), humpback whales (<em>Megaptera novaeangliae</em>) and minke whales (<em>Balaenoptera acutorostrata</em>)—have shifted their distributions from the continental shelf break west of Spitsbergen during the early period into fjords and coastal areas during the recent period. These changes coincide with increased inflows of Atlantic Water into the fjords along the west coast of Spitsbergen and across the north of the archipelago.</p> 2022-01-25T00:00:00-08:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Kit M. Kovacs, Olof Bengtsson, Christian Lydersen https://polarresearch.net/index.php/polar/article/view/8432 Managing cumulative impacts and protected areas in Antarctica: what can we learn from the rest of the world? 2022-06-20T05:45:37-07:00 Alvaro Soutullo a.soutullo@gmail.com Ana Laura Machado-Gaye almachado90@gmail.com Eduardo Juri edujuri@gmail.com <p>For more than 20 years Antarctic Treaty Parties have been discussing how to appropriately manage cumulative impacts in the continent. Preventing cumulative impacts requires the fluent exchange of information to enable proper and timely assessment of, and response to, the impacts that result from multiple activities, undertaken by multiple stakeholders and supervised by different Parties. This is a particular challenge for the effective management of Antarctic Specially Protected Areas (ASPAs), as a lack of coordination may potentially put at risk the fulfillment of their conservation objectives. Here we suggest that incorporating lessons learnt from protected areas management elsewhere might improve the effectiveness of ASPAs and provide valuable experiences and insights on how to better manage cumulative impacts in the rest of the continent. Key concepts to incorporate in Antarctica’s environmental management toolbox include (1) the notion of adaptive management, which is a cornerstone of protected areas management effectiveness elsewhere, and (2) the need of empowering protected area managers, which are a key (but often missing) element to ensure local compliance with management plans, co-ordinate on site activities, facilitate exchange of information, promote cooperation and manage conflicts.</p> 2022-06-20T05:37:53-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Alvaro Soutullo, Ana Laura Machado-Gaye, Eduardo Juri https://polarresearch.net/index.php/polar/article/view/7706 China’s engagement in Greenland: mutual economic benefits and political non-interference 2022-03-17T03:33:44-07:00 Chuan Chen dpw862@alumni.ku.dk <p>With China becoming more active in Greenland, worries abound that China might have hidden intentions. Despite that, the Greenlandic government is showing an increasing interest in deepening its cooperation with China. This article explores Greenland’s motivation behind its positive attitude towards China and examines whether China will be a threat to Greenland’s independence. For Greenland, China is both a deep-pocketed investor and a huge consumer market, especially in the mining, fishing and tourism industries. Greenland, therefore, views China as an important partner in its economic development, which is necessary for its independence from Denmark. Considering China’s relationship with Denmark, its foreign policy and its affairs vis-à-vis Tibet, Xinjiang and Taiwan, it is not in China’s interest to interfere with any affairs related to Greenland’s independence.</p> 2022-03-17T03:30:57-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Chuan Chen https://polarresearch.net/index.php/polar/article/view/8176 Polar bear depredation of a thick-billed murre fledgling in open water at Prince Leopold Island, Nunavut 2022-04-13T04:22:13-07:00 Martyn E. Obbard martynobbard@gmail.com Christopher Di Corrado birdspaz@hotmail.com João Franco joaomiguelfranco@hotmail.com Roger Pimenta roger@rogerpimenta.com Boris Wise boris@boriswise.com <p>Sea-ice distribution and duration are declining across the circumpolar range of the polar bear (<em>Ursus maritimus</em>), resulting in a reduced access to ice-obligate seals, its primary prey. Consequently, polar bears may have increased reliance on alternative food sources in the future. Foraging on land is well documented but foraging in open water is less understood. We report the successful depredation of a thick-billed murre (<em>Uria lomvia</em>) in open water near Prince Leopold Island, Nunavut, and discuss implications for understanding the behavioural plasticity of polar bears and their opportunistic foraging patterns.</p> <p>_______________________________</p> <p><a href="https://figshare.com/articles/media/Obbard_et_al_2022_Supplementary_File_Polar_Research_mp4/19251509/1" target="_blank" rel="noopener">View the supplementary video</a></p> 2022-04-12T06:00:03-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Martyn E. Obbard, Christopher Di Corrado, João Franco, Roger Pimenta, Boris Wise https://polarresearch.net/index.php/polar/article/view/8487 Book review of The return of the South Pole sled dogs: with Amundsen’s and Mawson’s Antarctic expeditions, by Mary R. Tahan (2021). Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing. 467 pp. ISBN 978-3-030-65112-1. 2022-04-19T01:12:26-07:00 Javier Menéndez-Blázquez jmenendezblazquez@gmail.com 2022-04-18T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Javier Menéndez-Blázquez