Phototrophic and heterotrophic nano- and microorganisms of sea ice and sub-ice water in Guba Chupa (Chupa Inlet), White Sea, in April 2002
AbstractAutotrophic and heterotrophic flagellates, microalgae and ciliates sampled at four stations in the White Sea in April 2002 were studied using epifluorescence microscopy. The concentrations of phototrophic 1.5 ?m algae in the middle and lower part of the ice core were very high: up to 6.1 ± 108 cells I?1 and 194 ?g C I?1. Heterotrophic algae made up the largest proportion of the nanoplankton (2-20 ?m) and microplankton (20-200 ?m) at depths 10-25 m below the ice. The proportion of ciliates ranged from about 0.01% to 18% at different stations and depths. Most of the ciliate biomass in the ice was made up of typical littoral zone species, whereas the water under the ice was dominated by phototrophic Myrionecta rubra. Ice algae, mainly flagellates in the upper ice layer and diatoms in the bottom ice layer, supported the proliferation of heterotrophs, algae and ciliates in early spring. Small heterotrophs and diatoms from the ice may provide food for early growth and development of pelagic copepods. Mass development of the ice algae in early spring appears typical for the seasonal ice of the White Sea. Ice algae differ in species composition from the spring pelagic community and develop independently in time and space from the spring phytoplankton bloom.
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