Stranded beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) calf response and care: reports of two cases with different outcomes

  • Caroline E.C. Goertz Alaska SeaLife Center, Seward, AK, USA
  • Kathy Woodie Alaska SeaLife Center, Seward, AK, USA
  • Brett Long Alaska SeaLife Center, Seward, AK, USA
  • Lisa Hartman Alaska SeaLife Center, Seward, AK, USA
  • Eric Gaglione Georgia Aquarium, Atlanta, GA, USA
  • Dennis Christen Georgia Aquarium, Atlanta, GA, USA
  • Tonya Clauss Georgia Aquarium, Atlanta, GA, USA
  • Jennifer Flower Mystic Aquarium, Mystic, CT, USA
  • Allison Tuttle Mystic Aquarium, Mystic, CT, USA
  • Carey Richard Mystic Aquarium, Mystic, CT, USA
  • Tracy A. Romano Mystic Aquarium, Mystic, CT, USA
  • Todd Schmitt SeaWorld San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA
  • Eric Otjen SeaWorld San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA
  • Steve Osborn SeaWorld San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USA
  • Steve Aibel John G. Shedd Aquarium, Chicago, IL, USA
  • Tim Binder John G. Shedd Aquarium, Chicago, IL, USA; and Florida Aquarium, Tampa, FL, USA
  • William Van Bonn John G. Shedd Aquarium, Chicago, IL, USA
  • Manuel Castellote Marine Mammal Laboratory, Alaska Fisheries Science Center, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Seattle, WA, USA; and Cooperative Institute for Climate, Ocean, and Ecosystem Studies, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
  • T. Aran Mooney Biology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA, USA
  • Sophie Dennison-Gibby TeleVet Imaging Solutions, PLLC, Oakton, VA, USA
  • Kathy Burek-Huntington Alaska Veterinary Pathology Service, Eagle River, AK, USA
  • Teresa K. Rowles Marine Mammal Health and Stranding Response Program, Office of Protected Resources, National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Silver Spring, MD, USA
Keywords: Cetacean, neonate, nutrition, hand-rearing, critical care


Given the remote, rugged areas belugas typically inhabit and the low rehabilitation success rate with any cetacean, it is rare to have the opportunity to rescue a live-stranded beluga. The Alaska SeaLife Center cared for two stranded beluga calves with two different outcomes. In 2012, a neonatal male beluga calf (DL1202) stranded following intense storms in Bristol Bay. In 2017, a helicopter pilot discovered a stranded male beluga calf (DL1705) during a flight over Cook Inlet. The Alaska SeaLife Center transported both calves for rehabilitation and utilized supportive care plans based on those for other species of stranded cetaceans and care of neonatal belugas at zoological facilities. Diagnostics included complete blood counts, serum chemistries, microbial cultures, hearing tests, imaging and morphometric measurements to monitor systemic health. Treatments included in-pool flotation support; antimicrobials; gastrointestinal support; and close monitoring of respirations, urination, defecation and behaviour. After three weeks of supportive care, the Bristol Bay calf (DL1202) succumbed to sepsis secondary to a possible prematurity-related lack of passive transfer of antibodies. After seven weeks, the Cook Inlet calf (DL1705) recovered and all medications were discontinued. Unable to survive on his own, he was declared non-releasable and placed in long-term care at a zoological facility, to live with other belugas. Aspects and details from successful cases of cetacean critical care become important references especially vital for the survival of essential animals in small, endangered populations.


Download data is not yet available.


ANSI (American National Standards Institute) 2018. Procedure for determining audiograms in toothed whales through evoked potential methods. Melville, NY: American National Standards Institute.

Au W. 1993. The sonar of dolphins. New York: Springer.

Au W. 2000. Hearing in whales and dolphins: an overview. In W. Auet al. (eds.): Hearing by whales and dolphins. Pp. 1–42. New York: Springer.

Bayne J.E. & Edmondson M.A. 2020. Diseases of the gastrointestinal system. In D. Pughet al. (eds.): Sheep, goat, and cervid medicine. 3rd edn. Pp. 63–96. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier.

Bekkali N., Hamers S.L., Schipperus M.R., Reitsma J.B., Valerio P.G., Van Toled, L. & Benninga M.A. 2008. Duration of meconium passage in preterm and term infants. Archive of Disease in Childhood—Fetal Neonatal Edition 93, F376–F379, doi: 10.1136/adc.2009.159442.

Bell K.M., Rutherfurd S.M., Cottam Y.H. & Hendriks W.H. 2011. Evaluation of two milk replacers fed to hand-reared cheetah cubs (Acinonyx jubatus): nutrient composition, apparent total tract digestibility, and comparison to maternal cheetah milk. Zoo Biology 30, 412–426, doi: 10.1002/zoo.20344.

Biel M., Kramer M., Forterre F., Jurina K., Lautersack O., Failing K. & Schmid M.J. 2013. Outcome of ventriculoperitoneal shunt implantation for treatment of congenital internal hydrocephalus in dogs and cats: 36 cases (2001–2009). Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 242, 948–958, doi: 10.2460/javma.242.7.948.

Bossart G.D., Hurley W., Biedenbach G., Denny M., Borkowski R., Goricki C., Searcy E., Roberts K. & Reif J. 2013. Pathologic findings in stranded cetaceans from northeastern Florida. The Journal of Infectious Diseases 1, 36–50.

Brouwer L. 1981. Subcutaneous emphysema in a beluga whale. Paper presented at the 12th Annual Conference of the International Association for Aquatic Animal Medicine, 3–6 May, Mystic, CT.

Castellote M., Mooney T.A., Quakenbush L., Hobb, R., Goertz C. & Gaglione E. 2014. Baseline hearing abilities and variability in wild beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas). Journal of Experimental Biology 217, 1682–1691, doi: 10.1242/jeb.093252.

Colegrove K., Venn-Watson S., Litz J., Kinsel M., Terio K., Fougeres E., Ewing R., Pabst D., McLellan W., Raverty S., Saliki J., Fire S., Rappucci G., Bowen-Stevens S., Noble L., Costidis A., Barbieri M., Field C., Smith S., Carmichael R.H., Chevis C., Hatchett W., Shannon D., Tumlin M., Lovewell G., McFee W. & Rowles T.K. 2016. Fetal distress and in utero pneumonia in perinatal dolphins during the northern Gulf of Mexico unusual mortality event. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 119, 1–16, doi: 10.3354/dao02969.

Cornick L.A., Quakenbush L.T., Norman S.A., Pasi C., Maslyk P., Burek K.A., Goertz C.E.C. & Hobbs R.C. 2016. Seasonal and developmental differences in blubber stores of beluga whales in Bristol Bay, Alaska using high-resolution ultrasound. Journal of Mammalogy 97, 1238–1248, doi: 10.1093/jmammal/gyw074.

Corpa J.M., Peris B., Palacio J., Liste F. & Ribes V. 2004. Hydrocephalus in a newborn bottlenosed dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Veterinary Record 155, 208–210, doi: 10.1136/vr.155.7.208.

Dalton L. 2007. Reproductive biology of the beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas). Paper presented at the 38th Annual Conference of the International Association for Aquatic Animal Medicine, 5–9 May, Orlando, FL.

Davison A.J., Nielsen O., Subramaniam K., Jacob J.M., Romero C.H., Burek-Huntington K.A. & Waltzek T.B. 2017. Genome sequence of an alphaherpesvirus from a beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas). Genome Announcements 5, e01100-17, doi: 10.1128/genomeA.01100-17.

Dearolf J.L., McLellan W.A., Dillaman R.M., Frierson D. & Pabst D.A. 2000. Precocial development of axial locomotor muscle in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Journal of Morphology 244, 203–215, doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-4687(200006)244:3<203::AID-JMOR5>3.0.CO;2-V.

De Guise S., Giard J., Patenaude R., Michaud R., Ramirez K., Beland P., Turgeon P., Pelletier E. 1992. Rescue of a newborn beluga whale in the St. Lawrence Estuary, Quebec, Canada. Paper presented at the Conference of the International Association for Aquatic Animal Medicine, 18–22 May, Hong Kong.

Dennison S. & Saviano P. 2018. Diagnostic imaging. In F.M.D. Gullandet al. (eds.): CRC handbook of marine mammal medicine. 3rd edn. Pp. 537–551. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

de Stefani A., de Risio L., Platt S.R., Matiasek L., Lujan-Feliu-Pascual A. & Garosi L.S. 2011. Surgical technique, postoperative complications and outcome in 14 dogs treated for hydrocephalus by ventriculoperitoneal shunting: ventriculoperitoneal shunting in dogs. Veterinary Surgery 40, 183–191, doi: 10.1111/j.1532-950X.2010.00764.x.

Díaz-Delgado J., Fernández A., Sierra E., Sacchini S., Andrada M., Vela A.I., Quesada-Canales Ó., Paz Y., Zucca D., Groch K. & Arbelo M. 2018. Pathologic findings and causes of death of stranded cetaceans in the Canary Islands (2006–2012). PLoS One 13, e0204444, doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0204444.

Dierauf L.A., Dougherty S.A. & Baker B. 1984. Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardsi). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 15, 55–59, doi: 10.2307/20094685.

Duignan P.J., Stephens N.S. & Robb K. 2020. Fresh water skin disease in dolphins: a case definition based on pathology and environmental factors in Australia. Nature Scientific Reports 10, article no. 21979, doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-78858-2

Fahlman A., Brodsky M., Rocho-Levine J., Garcia-Parraga D., Ivančić M., Camarena C., Ibarra L. & Rocabert J. 2021. Respiratory changes in stranded bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 52, 49–56, doi: 10.1638/2020-0033.

Feinholz D.M. & Atkinson S. 2000. Possible aetiologies of yellow coloration in dolphin calves. Aquatic Mammals 26, 191–195.

Fernández A., Sierra E., Díaz-Delgado J., Sacchini S., Sánchez-Paz Y., Suárez-Santana C., Arregui M., Arbelo M. & de Quirós Y.B. 2017. Deadly acute decompression sickness in Risso’s dolphins. Nature Scientific Reports 7, article no. 13621, doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-14038-z.

Finneran J.J., Houser D.S. & Schlundt C.E. 2007. Objective detection of bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) steady-state auditory evoked potentials in response to AM/FM tones. Aquatic Mammals 33, 43–54.

Flower J.E., Langan J.N., Nevitt B.N., Chinnadurai S.K., Stacey R., Ivančić M. & Adkesson M.J. 2018. Neonatal critical care and hand-rearing of a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) calf. Aquatic Mammals 43, 482–490, doi: 10.1578/AM.44.5.2018.482.

Geraci J.R. & Lounsbury V.J. 1993. Marine mammals ashore: a field guide for strandings. Galveston: Sea Grant College Program, Texas A&M University.

Gulland F.M.D., Dierauf L.A. & Whitman, K.L. 2018. Normal hematology and serum chemistry ranges. In F.M.D. Gullandet al. (eds.): CRC handbook of marine mammal medicine. 3rd edn. Pp. 1002–1029. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Heinze C.R., Freeman L.M., Martin C.R., Power M.L. & Fascetti A.J. 2014. Comparison of the nutrient composition of commercial dog milk replacers with that of dog milk. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 244, 1413–1422, doi: 10.2460/javma.244.12.1413.

Houser D.S. & Finneran J.J. 2006. Variation in the hearing sensitivity of a dolphin population determined through the use of evoked potential audiometry. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 120, 4090–4099, doi: 10.1121/1.2357993.

Jaramillo‐Legorreta A., Rojas‐Bracho L., Brownell R.L., Read A.J., Reeves R.R., Ralls K. & Taylor B.L. 2007. Saving the vaquita: immediate action, not more data. Conservation Biology 21, 1653–1655, doi: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2007.00825.x.

Krasnov V.V., Bel’kovich V.M. & Chernetskii A.D. 2009. Formation of behavior in the White Sea beluga calf, Delphinapterus leucas, during early postnatal ontogenesis. Russian Journal of Marine Biology 35, 53–59, doi: 10.1134/S1063074009010088.

Lakshmanan J. & Ross M.G. 2008. Mechanism(s) of in utero meconium passage. Journal of Perinatology 28 (Suppl. 3), S8–S13, doi: 10.1038/jp.2008.144.

Langan J.N. 2009. Diagnosis and management of a pulmonary abscess in a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Paper presented at the 40th Annual Conference of the International Association for Aquatic Animal Medicine, 2–6 May, San Antonio, TX.

Langan J.N. 2016. Antemortem diagnosis of hydrocephalus and hearing loss associated with chronic Brucella infection in a stranded rehabilitated bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Paper presented at the Conference of the International Association for Aquatic Animal Medicine, 21–26 May, Virginia Beach, VA.

LeBert C., McGrew S., Venn-Watson S., Dold C., Nollens H. & Jensen E. 2017. Evaluation of rapid pool-side tests for diagnosis of failure of passive transfer in bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) neonates. Paper presented at the 48th Annual Conference of the International Association for Aquatic Animal Medicine, 20–24 May, Cancun, Mexico.

Le Net R., Couture É., Lasby B., Wimmer T., Haulena M., Lair S., Giard J., Michaud R., Binder T., Elliott I. & Lesage V. 2019. Medical aspects of the translocation to the St. Lawrence Estuary (Quebec, Canada) of a beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) trapped in a river. Paper presented at the Second International Workshop on Beluga Whale Research and Conservation, 12–14 March, Mystic, CT.

McGuire T. & Stephens A. 2017. Photo-identification of beluga whales in Cook Inlet, Alaska: summary and synthesis of 2005–2015 data. Anchorage: LGL Alaska Research Associates, Inc.

Meegan J., Field C., Sidor I., Romano T., Casinghino S., Smith C.R., Kashinsky L., Fair P.A., Bossart G., Wells R. & Dunn J.L. 2010. Development, validation, and utilization of a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of antibodies against Brucella species in marine mammals. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 22, 856–862, doi: 10.1177/104063871002200603.

Michaud R., Giard J., Michaud A. & Moisan M. 2020. Translocation of live-stranded newborn St. Lawrence Estuary belugas (Delphinapterus leucas) for adoption by nearby females: a review of past responses, and assessment of feasibility and risks. Tadoussac, QC: Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat.

Miller M.A., Gardner I.A., Packham A., Mazet J.K., Hanni K.D., Jessup D., Estes J., Jameson R., Dodd E., Barr B.C., Lowenstine L.J., Gulland F.M. & Conrad P.A. 2002. Evaluation of an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) for demonstration of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in the sea otter (Enhydra lutris). Journal of Parasitology 88, 594–599, doi: 10.2307/3285456.

Mooney T.A., Castellote M., Jones I., Rouse N., Rowles T., Mahoney B. & Goertz C.E.C. 2020. Audiogram of a Cook Inlet beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas). The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 148, 3141–3148, doi: 10.1121/10.0002351.

Mooney T.A., Castellote M., Quakenbush L., Hobb, R., Gaglione E. & Goertz C. 2018. Variation in hearing within a wild population of beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas). Journal of Experimental Biology 221, jeb171959, doi: 10.1242/jeb.171959.

Mooney T.A., Yamato M. & Branstetter B.K. 2012. Hearing in cetaceans: from natural history to experimental biology. Advances in Marine Biology 63, 197–246, doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-394282-1.00004-1.

Morgan L.W., Jakush J.L., Simpson A., Norman M.M., Pabst D.A. & Simmons S. 2009. Evaluation of hematologic and biochemical values for convalescing seals from the coast of Maine. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 40, 421–429, doi: 10.1638/2007-0032.1.

Mueller R. & Geraci J.R. 1977. Unusual disease findings in a stranded pilot whale. Paper presented at the Conference of the International Association for Aquatic Animal Medicine, 18–21 April, Boston, MA.

Nachtigall P.E. 2005. Hearing measurements from a stranded infant Risso’s dolphin, Grampus griseus. Journal of Experimental Biology 208, 4181–4188, doi: 10.1242/jeb.01876.

Nachtigall P.E., Mooney T.A., Taylor K.A. & Yuen M.M.L. 2007. Hearing and auditory evoked potential methods applied to odontocete cetaceans. Aquatic Mammals 33, 6–13, doi: 10.1578/AM.33.1.2007.6.

National Marine Fisheries Service 2008. Endangered and threatened species; endangered status for the Cook Inlet beluga whale. Federal Register 73, 62919–62930.

National Marine Fisheries Service 2016. Recovery plan for the Cook Inlet beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas). Juneau, AK: National Marine Fisheries Service, Alaska Region, Protected Resources Division.

Oh J.W., Chung O., Cho Y.S., MacGregor G.R. & Plikus M.V. 2015. Gene loss in keratinization programs accompanies adaptation of cetacean skin to aquatic lifestyle. Experimental Dermatology 24, 572–573, doi: 10.1111/exd.12756.

Osborn S., Dalton L., Dold C. & Robeck T. 2012. Management of twin pregnancy and perinatal concerns in a beluga (Delphinapterus leucas). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 43, 193–196, doi: 10.1638/2011-0161.1.

Peters E.M.J. 2016. Stressed skin?—a molecular psychosomatic update on stress-causes and effects in dermatologic diseases. Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft 14, 233–252, doi: 10.1111/ddg.12957.

Pitman R.L., Durban J.W., Joyce T., Fearnbach H., Panigada S. & Lauriano G. 2020. Skin in the game: epidermal molt as a driver of long‐distance migration in whales. Marine Mammal Science 36, 565–594, doi: 10.1111/mms.12661.

Puryear W.B., Keogh M., Hill N., Moxley J., Josephson E., Davis K.R., Bandoro C., Lidgard D., Bogomolni A., Levin M., Lang S., Hammill M., Bowen D., Johnston D.W., Romano T., Waring G. & Runstadler J. 2016. Prevalence of influenza A virus in live-captured North Atlantic gray seals: a possible wild reservoir. Emerging Microbes & Infections 5, e81, doi: 10.1038/emi.2016.77.

Reeb D., Duffield M. & Best P.B. 2005. Evidence of postnatal ecdysis in southern right whales (Eubalaena australis). Journal of Mammalogy 86, 131–138, doi: 10.1644/1545-1542(2005)086<0131:EOPEIS>2.0.CO;2.

Reidarson T.H. 2007. Air third spacing phenomena in two cetaceans. Paper presented at the 38th Annual Conference of the International Association for Aquatic Animal Medicine, 5–9 May, Orlando, FL.

Reidarson T.H., McBain J.F. & Yochem P.K. 2001. Medical and nutritional aspects of a rehabilitating California gray whale calf. Aquatic Mammals 27, 215–221.

Robeck T.R., Schmitt T.L. & Osborn S. 2015. Development of predictive models for determining fetal age-at-length in belugas (Delphinapterus leucas) and their application toward in situ and ex situ population management. Marine Mammal Science 31, 591–611, doi: 10.1111/mms.12180.

Ruiz C.L., Nollens H.H., Venn-Watson S., Green L.G., Wells R.S., Walsh M.T., Nolan E.C., McBain J.F. & Jacobson E.R. 2009. Baseline circulating immunoglobulin G levels in managed collection and free-ranging bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Developmental & Comparative Immunology 33, 449–455, doi: 10.1016/j.dci.2008.09.002.

Saliki J.T. & Lehenbauer T.W. 2001. Monoclonal antibody-based competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of morbillivirus antibody in marine mammal sera. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 39, 1877–1881, doi: 10.1128/JCM.39.5.1877-1881.2001.

Schevill W.E. 1949. Underwater listening to the white porpoise (Delphinapterus leucas). Science 109, 143–144, doi: 10.1126/science.109.2824.143.

Schmitt T.L., St. Aubin D.J., Schaefer A.M. & Dunn J.L. 2010. Baseline, diurnal variations, and stress-induced changes of stress hormones in three captive beluga whales, Delphinapterus leucas. Marine Mammal Science 26, 635–647, doi: 10.1111/j.1748-7692.2009.00366.x.

Seegraber F.J. & Morrill J.L. 1986. Effect of protein source in calf milk replacers on morphology and absorptive ability of small intestine. Journal of Dairy Science 69, 460–469, doi: 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(86)80424-6.

Shelden K.E.W. & Wade P.R. 2019. Aerial surveys, distribution, abundance, and trend of belugas (Delphinapterus leucas) in Cook Inlet, Alaska, June 2018. Seattle, WA: Alaska Fisheries Science Center, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service.

Sjare B.L. & Smith T.G. 1986. The vocal repertoire of white whales, Delphinapterus leucas, summering in Cunningham Inlet, Northwest Territories. Canadian Journal of Zoology 64, 407–415, doi: 10.1139/z86-063.

Spackman E., Senne D.A., Myers T.J., Bulaga L.L., Garber L.P., Perdue M.L., Lohman K., Daum L.T. & Suarez D.L. 2002. Development of a real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assay for type A influenza virus and the avian H5 and H7 hemagglutinin subtypes. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 40, 3256–3260, doi: 10.1128/JCM.40.9.3256-3260.2002.

St. Aubin D.J., Smith T.G. & Geraci J.R. 1990. Seasonal epidermal molt in beluga whales, Delphinapterus leucas. Canadian Journal of Zoology 68, 359–367, doi: 10.1139/z90-051.

St. Leger J.A. 2007. Hydrocephalus and nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis associated with Brucella sp. infection in two live-stranded dolphins. Paper presented at the 38th Annual Conference of the International Association for Aquatic Animal Medicine, 5–9 May, Orlando, FL.

St. Leger J., Raverty S. & Mena A. 2018. Cetacea. In K.A. Terioet al. (eds.): Pathology of wildlife and zoo animals. Pp. 533–568. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier.

Stoskopf M.K., Willens S. & McBain J.F. 2001. Pharmaceuticals and formularies. In F.M.D. Gullandet al. (eds.): CRC handbook of marine mammal medicine. 3rd edn. Pp. 703–722. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Sweeney J.C., Stone R., Campbell M., McBain J., St. Leger J., Xitco M., Jensen E. & Ridgway S. 2010. Comparative survivability of Tursiops neonates from three U.S. institutions for the decades 1990–1999 and 2000–2009. Aquatic Mammals 36, 248–261, doi: 10.1578/AM.36.3.2010.248.

Teare A. 1991. Medical record systems for the next century: the case for improved health care through integrated data base. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 22, 389–391.

Tizard I. 1992. Veterinary immunology. Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders Co.

Vangay P., Ward T., Gerber J.S. & Knights D. 2015. Antibiotics, pediatric dysbiosis, and disease. Cell Host & Microbe 17, 553–564, doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2015.04.006.

Walsh M.T. & Gearhart S. 2001. Intensive care. In F.M.D. Gullandet al. (eds.): CRC handbook of marine mammal medicine. 3rd edn. Pp. 689–702. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Wang D., Zhang X., Wang K., Wei Z., Würsig B., Braulik G.T. & Ellis S. 2006. Conservation of the baiji: no simple solution. Conservation Biology 20, 623–625, doi: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2006.00471.x.

Winhall W. 2012. Hand raising and conditioning of neonate beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas). Soundings 37, 16–21.

Zagzebski K.A., Gulland F.M., Haulena M. & Lander M.E. 2006. Twenty-five years of rehabilitation of odontocetes stranded in central and northern California, 1977 to 2002. Aquatic Mammals 32, 334–345, doi: 10.1578/AM.32.3.2006.334.

Zarogoulidis P., Kioumis I., Pitsiou G., Porpodis K., Lampaki S., Papaiwannou A., Katsikogiannis N., Zaric B., Branislav P., Secen N., Dryllis G., Machairiotis N., Rapti A. & Zarogoulidis K. 2014. Pneumothorax: from definition to diagnosis and treatment. Journal of Thoracic Disease 6, Suppl. 4, S372–S376, doi: 10.3978/j.issn.2072-1439.2014.09.24.
How to Cite
Goertz, C. E., Woodie, K., Long, B., Hartman, L., Gaglione, E., Christen, D., Clauss, T., Flower, J., Tuttle, A., Richard, C., Romano, T. A., Schmitt, T., Otjen, E., Osborn, S., Aibel, S., Binder, T., Van Bonn, W., Castellote, M., Mooney, T. A., Dennison-Gibby, S., Burek-Huntington, K., & Rowles, T. K. (2021). Stranded beluga (<em>Delphinapterus leucas</em&gt;) calf response and care: reports of two cases with different outcomes. Polar Research, 40(S1).