Beluga whale stewardship and collaborative research practices among Indigenous peoples in the Arctic

  • Kaitlin Breton-Honeyman Nunavik Marine Region Wildlife Board, Inukjuak, QC, Canada
  • Henry P. Huntington Ocean Conservancy, Eagle River, AK, USA
  • Mark Basterfield Nunavik Marine Region Wildlife Board, Inukjuak, QC, Canada
  • Kiyo Campbell Fisheries Joint Management Committee, Inuvik, NT, Canada
  • Jason Dicker Department of Lands and Natural Resources, Nunatsiavut Government, Nain, NL, Canada
  • Tom Gray Alaska Beluga Whale Committee, Nome, AK, USA
  • Alfred E.R. Jakobsen Oceans North Greenland, Nuuk, Greenland
  • Frankie Jean-Gagnon Nunavik Marine Region Wildlife Board, Inukjuak, QC, Canada
  • David Lee Department of Wildlife and Environment, Nunavut Tunngavik Inc., Ottawa, ON, Canada
  • Rodd Laing Department of Lands and Natural Resources, Nunatsiavut Government, Nain, NL, Canada
  • Lisa Loseto Freshwater Institute, Fisheries and Oceans Canada , Winnipeg, MB, Canada; and Environment and Geography, University of Winnipeg, Winnipeg, MB, Canada
  • Paul McCarney Department of Lands and Natural Resources, Nunatsiavut Government, Nain, NL, Canada
  • John Noksana Jr. Fisheries Joint Management Committee, Inuvik, NT, Canada
  • Tommy Palliser Nunavik Marine Region Wildlife Board, Inukjuak, QC, Canada
  • Lawrence Ruben Inuvialuit Game Council, Paulatuk, NT, Canada
  • Clayton Tartak Kivalliq Wildlife Board, Nunavut Inuit Wildlife Secretariat, Rankin Inlet, NU, Canada
  • Joseph Townley Department of Lands and Natural Resources, Nunatsiavut Government, Nain, NL, Canada
  • Eduard Zdor University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK, USA
Keywords: marine mammals, Arctic, co-production of knowledge, wildlife research and management, Delphinapterus leucas


Beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) are an integral part of many Arctic Indigenous cultures and contribute to food security for communities from Greenland, across northern Canada and Alaska to Chukotka, Russia. Although the harvesting and stewardship practices of Indigenous peoples vary among regions and have shifted and adapted over time, central principles of respect for beluga and sharing of the harvest have remained steadfast. In addition to intra-community cooperation to harvest, process and use beluga whales, rapid environmental change in the Arctic has underscored the need for inter-regional communication as well as collaboration with scientists and managers to sustain beluga populations and their cultural and nutritional roles in Arctic communities. Our paper, written by the overlapping categories of researchers, hunters, and managers, first provides an overview of beluga hunting and collaborative research in seven regions of the Arctic (Greenland; Nunatsiavut, Nunavik, Nunavut, and the Inuvialuit Settlement Region, Canada; Alaska; and Chukotka). Then we present a more detailed case study of collaboration, examining a recent research and management project that utilizes co-production of knowledge to address the conservation of a depleted population of beluga in Nunavik, Canada. We conclude that sustaining traditional values, establishing collaborative management efforts, the equitable inclusion of Indigenous Knowledge, and respectful and meaningful collaborations among hunters, researchers and managers are essential to sustaining healthy beluga populations and the peoples who live with and depend upon them in a time of rapid social and environmental change.


Download data is not yet available.


Adams M., Frost, K.J. & Harwood L. 1993. Alaska and Inuvialuit Beluga Whale Committee (AIBWC)—an initiative in “at home management.” Arctic 46, 134–137, doi: 10.14430/arctic1334.

Alayco S., Bergeron M. & Michaud M.D. 2007. Inuit elders and their Traditional Knowledge: beluga hunting and sustainable practices. Westmount, QC: Avataq Cultural Institute / Ottawa: Fisheries and Oceans Canada.

Alexander S.M., Provencher J.F., Henri D.A., Taylor J.J., Lloren J.I., Nanayakkara L., Johnson J.T. & Cooke S.J.. 2019. Bridging Indigenous and science‑based knowledge in coastal and marine research, monitoring, and management in Canada. Environmental Evidence 8, article no. 36, doi: 10.1186/s13750-019-0181-3.

Armitage D., Berkes F., Dale A., Kocho-Schellenberg E. & Patton E. 2011. Co-management and the co-production of knowledge: learning to adapt in Canada’s Arctic. Global Environmental Change 21, 995–1004, doi: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2011.04.006.

Bailleul F., Lesage V., Power M., Doidge D.W. & Hammill M.O. 2012a. Differences in diving and movement patterns of two groups of beluga whales in a changing Arctic environment reveal discrete populations. Endangered Species Research 17, 27–41, doi: 10.3354/esr00420.

Bailleul, F., Lesage V., Power M., Doidge D.W & Hammill M.O. 2012b. Migration phenology of beluga whales in a changing Arctic. Climate Research 53, 169–178 doi: 10.3354/cr01104.

Blanchet C. & Rochette L. 2008. Nutrition and food consumption among the Inuit of Nunavik. Nunavik Inuit Health Survey 2004, Qanuippitaa? How are we? Quebec: Institut National de Santé Publique du Québec and Nunavik Regional Board of Health and Social Services.

Breton-Honeyman K., Hammill M.O., Furgal C.M. & Hickie B. 2016. Inuit knowledge of beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas ) foraging ecology in Nunavik (Arctic Quebec), Canada. Canadian Journal of Zoology 94, 713–726, doi: 10.1139/cjz-2015-0259.

Breton-Honeyman K., Furgal C.M. & Hammill M.O. 2016. Systematic review and critique of the contributions of Traditional Ecological Knowledge of beluga whales in the marine mammal literature. Arctic 69, 37–46, doi: 10.14430/arctic4543.

Brice-Bennett C. (ed.) 1977. Our footprints are everywhere: Inuit land use and occupancy in Labrador. Nain, NL: Labrador Inuit Association.

Brice-Bennett C. 1978. An overview of the occurrence of cetaceans along the northern Labrador coast. Report for Offshore Labrador Biological Studies Program. St. John’s, NL: Northern Environmental Protection Branch, Northern Affairs Program.

Choy E.S., Campbell K.L., Berenbrink M., Roth J. & Loseto L.L. 2019. Body condition impacts blood and muscle oxygen storage capacity of free-living beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas). Journal of Experimental Biology 222, jeb191916, doi: 10.1242/jeb.191916.

Choy E.S., Giraldo C., Rosenberg B. Roth J.D., Stasko A., Majewski A., Swanson H., Power M., Reist J.D. & Loseto L.L. 2020. Variation in the diet of beluga whales in response to changes in prey availability: insights on changes in the Beaufort Sea ecosystem. Marine Ecology Progress Series 647, 195–210, doi: 10.3354/meps13413.

Choy E.S., Rosenberg B., Roth J.D. & Loseto L.L. 2017. Inter-annual variations in environmental factors affect prey and body condition of eastern Beaufort Sea beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas). Marine Ecology Progress Series 579, 201–212, doi: 10.3354/meps12256.

Citta J.J., Richard P., Lowry L.F., O’Corry-Crowe G., Marcoux M., Suydam R., Quakenbush L.T., Hobbs R.C., Litovka D.I., Frost K.J., Gray T., Orr J., Tinker B., Aderman H. & Druckenmiller M.L. 2017. Satellite telemetry reveals population specific winter ranges of beluga whales in the Bering Sea. Marine Mammal Science 33, 236–250, doi: 10.1111/mms.12357.

Colbeck G.J., Duchesne P., Postma L.D., Lesage V., Hammill M.O. & Turgeon J. 2013. Groups of related belugas (Delphinapterus leucas) travel together during their seasonal migrations in and around Hudson Bay. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Biological Sciences 280, article no. 20122552, doi: 10.1098/rspb.2012.2552.

Collings P., Pearce T. & Kann J. 2018. “We don’t know anything about whales”: ecological knowledge and ways of knowing in Ulukhaktok, Northwest Territories, Canada. Arctic Science 241, 223–241, doi: 10.1139/as-2017-0030.

COSEWIC 2004. COSEWIC assessment and update status report on the beluga whale Delphinapterus leucas in Canada. Ottawa: Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada.

Day B. 2002. Renewable resources of the Beaufort Sea for our children: perspectives from an Inuvialuit elder. Arctic 55, Supplement 1, 1–3, doi: 10.14430/arctic730.

DFO 2005. Recovery potential assessment of Cumberland Sound, Ungava Bay, eastern Hudson Bay and St. Lawrence beluga populations (Delphinapterus leucas). Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat Science Advisory Report 2005/036. Ottawa: Fisheries and Oceans Canada.

DFO 2010. Monitoring indicators for the Tarium Niryutait Marine Protected Area (TNMPA). Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat Science Advisory Report 2010/059. Ottawa: Fisheries and Oceans Canada.

DFO 2013. Identification of additional ecologically and biologically significant areas (EBSAs) within the Newfoundland and Labrador Shelves Bioregion. Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat Science Advisory Report 2013/048. Ottawa: Fisheries and Oceans Canada.

DFO 2018. Harvest advice for eastern and western Hudson Bay beluga (Delphinapterus leucas). Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat Science Advisory Report 2018/008. Ottawa: Fisheries and Oceans Canada.

DFO 2020. 2020 harvest advice for eastern Hudson Bay beluga (Delphinapterus leucas). Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat Science Advisory Report 2020/031. Ottawa: Fisheries and Oceans Canada.

DFO 2021. Fisheries and Oceans Canada and Canadian Coast Guard confirm new regions’ boundaries to improve services to the Arctic. Accessed on the internet at on 19 October 2021.

Doidge W., Adams W. & Burgy C. 2002. Traditional Ecological Knowledge of beluga whales in Nunavik: interviews from Puvirnituq, Umiujaq and Kuujjuaraapik. Report 12-419 of the Nunavik Research Centre submitted to Environment Canada’s Habitat Stewardship Program for Species at Risk. Kuujjuaq, QC: Makivik Corporation.

Doniol-Valcroze T. & Hammill M.O. 2012. Information on abundance and harvest of Ungava Bay beluga. Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat Research Document 2011/126. Ottawa: Fisheries and Oceans Canada.

Fernandez-Gimenez M.E., Huntington H.P. & Frost K.J. 2006. Integration or co-optation? Traditional Knowledge and science in the Alaska Beluga Whale Committee. Environmental Conservation 33, 306–315, doi: 10.1017/S0376892906003420.

Fernandez-Gimenez, M.E., Hays J.U. Jr., Huntington H.P., Andrew R. & Goodwin W. 2008. Ambivalence toward formalizing customary resource management norms among Alaska Native beluga whale hunters and Tohono O’odham livestock owners. Human Organization 67, 137–150, doi: 10.17730/humo.67.2.008083027273n05q.

FJMC 2013. Beaufort Sea Beluga Management Plan. 4th amended printing. Inuvik, NT: Fisheries Joint Management Committee.

Freeman M.M.R. 1993. The International Whaling Commission, small type whaling, and coming to terms with subsistence. Human Organization 52, 243–251.

Freeman M.M.R., Bogoslovskaya L., Caulfield R.A., Egede I., Krupnik I.I. & Stevenson M.G. (eds.) 1998. Inuit, whaling, and sustainability. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press.

Frost K.J. & Suydam R.S. 2010. Subsistence harvest of beluga or white whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in northern and western Alaska, 1987–2006. Journal of Cetacean Research Management 11, 293–299.

Gombay N. 2019. Wildlife management in Nunavik: structures, operations, and perceptions following the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement. Arctic 72, 181–196, doi: 10.14430/arctic68287.

Gosselin J.-F., Hammill M.O. & Mosnier A. 2017. Indices of abundance for beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) in James Bay and eastern Hudson Bay in summer 2015. Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat Research Document 2017/067. Ottawa: Fisheries and Oceans Canada.

Hammill M.O., Lesage V., Gosselin J.-F., Bourdages H., De March B.G.E. & Kingsley M.C.S. 2004. Evidence for a decline in northern Quebec (Nunavik) belugas. Arctic 57, 183–195.

Hammill M.O., Stenson G.B. & Doniol-Valcroze T. 2017. A management framework for Nunavik beluga. Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat Research Document 2017/060. Ottawa: Fisheries and Oceans Canada.

Harwood L.A., Innes S., Norton P. & Kingsley M.C.S. 1996. Distribution and abundance of beluga whales in the Mackenzie Estuary, southeast Beaufort Sea, and west Amundsen Gulf during late July 1992. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 53, 2262–2273, doi: 10.1139/f96-180.

Harwood L.A., Kingsley M.C.S. & Pokiak F. 2015. Monitoring beluga harvests in the Mackenzie Delta and near Paulatuk, NT, Canada: harvest efficiency and trend, size and sex of landed whales, and reproduction, 1970–2009. Canadian Manuscript Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 3059. Winnipeg: Fisheries and Oceans Canada.

Harwood L.A., Norton P., Day B. & Hall P.A. 2002. The harvest of beluga whales in Canada’s western Arctic: hunter-based monitoring of the size and composition of the catch. Arctic 55, 10–20, doi: 10.14430/arctic687.

Harwood L.A. & Smith T.G. 2002. Whales of the Inuvialuit Settlement Region in Canada’s western Arctic: an overview and outlook. Arctic 55, 77–93, doi: 10.14430/arctic736.

Harwood L.A., Zhu X., Angasuk L., Emaghok L., Ferguson S., Gruben C., Gruben P., Hall P., Illasiak J., Illasiak J., Lennie J., Lea E.V., Loseto L.L., Norton P., Pokiak C., Pokiak F., Rogers H., Snow K. & Storr W. 2020. Research, monitoring and hunter knowledge in support of the 2017 assessment of the eastern Beaufort Sea beluga stock. Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat Research Document 2020/075. Ottawa: Fisheries and Oceans Canada.

Heide‐Jørgensen M.P., Hansen R.G., Fossette S., Nielsen N.H., Borchers D.L., Stern H. & Witting L. 2017. Rebuilding beluga stocks in west Greenland. Animal Conservation 20, 282–293, doi: 10.1111/acv.12315.

Heide-Jørgensen M.P., Laidre K., Borchers D., Marques T., Stern H. & Simon M. 2010. The effect of sea-ice loss on beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in west Greenland. Polar Research 29, 198–208, doi: 10.3402/polar.v29i2.6061.

Higdon J.W. & Ferguson S.H. 2009. Loss of Arctic sea ice causing punctuated change in sightings of killer whales (Orcinus orca) over the past century. Ecological Applications 19, 1365–1375, doi: 10.1890/07-1941.1.

Higdon J.W., Westdal K.H. & Ferguson S.H. 2014. Distribution and abundance of killer whales (Orcinus orca) in Nunavut, Canada—an Inuit knowledge survey. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK 94, 1293–1304, doi: 10.1017/S0025315413000921.

Hobbs R.C., Reeves R.R., Prewitt J.S., Desportes G., Breton-Honeyman K., Christensen T., Citta J.J., Ferguson S.H., Frost K.J., Garde E., Gavrilo M., Ghazal M., Glazov D.M., Gosselin J.-F., Hammill M., Hansen R.G., Harwood L., Heide-Jørgensen M.P., Inglangasuk G., Kovacs K.M., Krasnova V.V., Kuznetsova D.M., Lee D.S., Lesage V., Litovka D.I., Lorenzen E.D., Lowry L.F., Lydersen C., Matthews C.J.D., Meschersky I.G., Mosnier A., O’Corry-Crowe G., Postma L., Quakenbush L.T., Shpak O.V., Skovrind M., Suydam R.S. & Watt C.A. 2019. Global review of the conservation status of monodontid stocks. Marine Fisheries Review 81, 1–53, doi: 10.7755/MFR.81.3-4.1.

Hoover C., Bailey M., Higdon J., Ferguson S.H. & Sumaila R. 2013. Estimating the economic value of narwhal and beluga hunts in Hudson Bay, Nunavut. Arctic 66, 1–16, doi: 10.14430/arctic4261.

Huntington H.P. 1992. Wildlife management and subsistence hunting in Alaska. London: Belhaven Press.

Huntington H.P. 2000. Traditional Knowledge of the ecology of belugas, Delphinapterus leucas, in Cook Inlet, Alaska. Marine Fisheries Review 62, 134–140.

Huntington H.P. 2021. Engaging with Indigenous Environmental Knowledge in the North American Arctic: moving from documentation to decisions in environmental governance. In T.F. Thornton & S.A. Bhagwat (eds.): The Routledge handbook of Indigenous Environmental Knowledge. Pp. 146–152. London: Routledge.

Huntington H.P. & the Communities of Buckland, Elim, Koyuk, Point Lay and Shaktoolik. 1999. Traditional Knowledge of the ecology of beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in the eastern Chukchi and northern Bering seas, Alaska. Arctic 52, 49–61.

Huntington H.P., Gearheard S., Mahoney A.R. & Salomon A.K. 2011. Integrating traditional and scientific knowledge through collaborative natural science field research: identifying elements for success. Arctic 64, 437–445, doi: 10.14430/arctic4143.

Huntington H.P., Quakenbush L.T. & Nelson M. 2017. Evaluating the effects of climate change on Indigenous marine mammal hunting in northern and western Alaska using Traditional Knowledge. Frontiers in Marine Science 4, article no. 319, doi: 10.3389/fmars.2017.00319.

Inuit Circumpolar Council 2018. Inuit Circumpolar Council Wildlife Management Summit report. Ottawa: Inuit Circumpolar Council.

Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami 2018. National Inuit strategy on research. Ottawa: Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami.

Kanayurak N.L. 2016. A case study of polar bear co-management in Alaska. Master’s thesis, University of Washington, Seattle, WA.

Kenny T. & Chan H.M. 2017. Estimating wildlife harvest based on reported consumption by Inuit in the Canadian Arctic. Arctic 70, 1–12, doi: 10.14430/arctic4625.

Kilabuk P. 1998. A study of Inuit knowledge of the southeast Baffin beluga. Iqaluit, NU: Nunavut Wildlife Management Board.

Lee D., Doidge W., Burgy C. & Adams W. 2002. Traditional Ecological Knowledge in relation to the management of beluga whales in Nunavik. Phase I. Interviews at Kangirsuk, Salluit and Inukjuak. Kuujjuaq, QC: Makivik Corporation.

Lemire M., Kwan M., Laouan-Sidi A.E, Muckle G., Pirkle C., Ayotte P. & Dewailly E. 2015. Local country food sources of methylmercury, selenium and omega-3 fatty acids in Nunavik, northern Quebec. Science of the Total Environment 509/510, 248–259, doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.07.102.

Lewis A.E., Hammill M.O., Power M., Doidge D.W. & Lesage V. 2009. Movement and aggregation of eastern Hudson Bay beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas): a comparison of patterns found through satellite telemetry and Nunavik Traditional Ecological Knowledge. Arctic 62, 13–24, doi: 10.14430/ARCTIC109.

Litovka D.I., Andronov P.Y. & Batanov R.L. 2013. Seasonal distribution of beluga whales Delphinapterus leucas depending on prey concentrations in coastal waters of north-western Bering Sea. The Researches of the Aquatic Biological Resources of Kamchatka and of the Northwest Part of the Pacific Ocean 28. Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, Russia: Kamchatka Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography. (In Russian with English title and abstract.)

Little M., Achouba A., Dumas P., Ouellet N., Ayotte P. & Lemire M. 2019. Determinants of selenoneine concentration in red blood cells of Inuit from Nunavik (northern Québec, Canada). Environment International 127, 243–252, doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2018.11.077.

Loseto L.L., Breton-Honeyman K., Etiendem D.N., Johnson N., Pearce T., Allen J., Amos A., Arqviq J. Baak J., Belanger E., Bourdages M., Brammer J., Fawcett D., Gerin-Lajoie J., Gilbert G., Hansen-Craik K., Loring E., Perrin A. & Slavitch M. 2020. Indigenous participation in peer review publications and the editorial process: reflections from a workshop. Arctic Science 6, 352–360, doi: 10.1139/as-2020-0023.

Loseto L.L. Brewster J.D., Ostertag S., Snow K., MacPhee S.A., McNicholl D.G., Choy E.S., Giraldo C. & Hornby C. 2018. Diet and feeding observations from an unusual beluga harvest in Ulukhaktok Northwest Territories, Canada. Arctic Science 4, 421–431, doi: 10.1139/as-2017-0046.

Loseto L.L., Hoover C.H., Ostertag S.K., Whalen D., Pearce T., Paulic J., Iacozza J. & MacPhee S. 2018. Beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas), environmental change and marine protected areas in the western Canadian Arctic. Estuarine and Coastal Shelf Systems 212, 128–137, doi: 10.1016/j.ecss.2018.05.026.

Loseto L.L., Stern G.A. & Macdonald R.M. 2015. Distant drivers or local signals: where do mercury trends in western Arctic belugas originate? Science of the Total Environment 509/510, 226–236, doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.10.110.

Lowry L.F., Frost K.J., Zerbini A., DeMaster D. & Reeves R.R. 2008. Trend in aerial counts of beluga or white whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in Bristol Bay, Alaska, 1993–2005. Journal of Cetacean Research Management 10, 201–207.

Lucier C.V. & VanStone J.W. 1995. Traditional beluga drives of the Iñupiat of Kotzebue Sound, Alaska. Fieldiana. Anthropology new series 25. Chicago: Field Museum of Natural History.

Matthews C.J.D., Watt C.A., Asselin N.C., Dunn J.B., Young B.G., Montsion L.M., Westdal K.H., Hall P.A., Orr J.R., Ferguson S.H. & Marcoux M. 2017. Estimated abundance of the western Hudson Bay beluga stock from the 2015 visual and photographic aerial survey. Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat Research Document 2017/061. Ottawa: Fisheries and Oceans Canada.

McCarney P., Cote D., Laing R., Wells N., Roul S., Novaczek E., Colbourne E., Maillet G., Anderson M.R., Denniston M., Wareham V., Neves B., Murphy A., Gullage L., Allard K., Gjerdrum C., Fifield D., Wilhelm S., Janes J., Pretty C., Gullage M., Lawson J., Stenson G., Paquet J., Hedd A. & Robertson G. 2021. Biophysical and ecological overview of a study area within the Labrador Inuit Settlement Area zone. Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat Research Document 2021/003. Ottawa: Fisheries and Oceans Canada.

McGhee R. 1974. Beluga hunters: an archaeological reconstruction of the history and culture of the Mackenzie Delta Kittygaryumuit. Newfoundland Social and Economic Studies 13. St. John’s, NL: Memorial University of Newfoundland.

Meehan R.H., Belikov S., Desportes G., Ferguson S.H., Kovacs K.M., Laidre K.L., Stenson G.B., Thomas P.O., Ugarte F. & Vongraven D. 2017. Marine mammals. In: State of the Arctic marine biodiversity report. Pp. 149–173. Akureyri: Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna International Secretariat.

Meltofte H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic biodiversity assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Akureyri, Iceland: Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna.

Moore R.C., Loseto L., Noel M., Etemadifar A., Brewster J.D., MacPhee S., Bendell L. & Ross P.S. 2020. Microplastics in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from the eastern Beaufort Sea. Marine Pollution Bulletin 150, article no. 110723, doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2019.110723.

Mosnier A., Hammill M., Turgeon S. & Postma L. 2017. Updated analysis of genetic mixing among beluga stocks in the Nunavik marine region and Belcher Islands area: information for population models and harvest allocation. Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat Research Document 2017/016. Ottawa: Fisheries and Oceans Canada.

the Communities of Novoe Chaplino, Sireniki, Uelen, and YanrakinnotMymrin N.I., & Huntington H.P. 1999. Traditional Knowledge of the ecology of beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in the northern Bering Sea, Chukotka, Russia. Arctic, 62–70, doi: 10.14430/arctic910.

NAMMCO 2018. Report of the NAMMCO global review of monodontids, 13–16 March 2017, Hillerød, Denmark. Tromsø, Norway: North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission.

NAMMCO 2021. Beluga. North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission. Accessed on the internet at on 31 August 2021.

Napayok J. 2018. NWMB 2018 hearing on WHB polar bears total allowable harvest harvest modification. Transcript accessed on the internet at on 19 October 2021.

Nielsen O., Burek-Huntington K.A., Loseto L.L., Morell M. & Romero C.H. 2018. Alphaherpesvirus: isolation, identification, partial characterisation, associated pathologic findings and epidemiology in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in Alaska and Arctic Canada. Arctic Science 4, 338–357, doi: 10.1139/as-2017-0043.

NOAA Fisheries 2021. Beluga whale. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries. Accessed on the internet at on 19 October 2021.

Noel M., Stern G.A. & Loseto L.L. 2018. Legacy contaminants in the eastern Beaufort Sea beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas): are temporal trends reflecting regulations? Arctic Science 4, 358–372, doi: 10.1139/as-2017-0049.

Norton P. & Harwood L.A. 1986. Distribution, abundance and behavior of white whale in Mackenzie Estuary. Report 036. Ottawa: Environmental Studies Revolving Funds.

Nursey-Bray M., Marsh H. & Ross H. 2010. Exploring discourses in environmental decision making: an Indigenous hunting case study. Society & Natural Resources 23, 366–382, doi: 10.1080/08941920903468621.

Obed N. 2016. Free, prior & informed consent and the future of Inuit self-determination. Northern Public Affairs 4, 38–41.

O’Corry-Crowe G.M., Suydam R.S., Rosenberg A., Frost K.J. & Dizon A.E. 1997. Phylogeography, population structure, and dispersal patterns of the beluga whale, Delphinapterus leucas, in the western Nearctic revealed by mitochondrial DNA. Molecular Ecology 6, 955–970, doi: 10.1046/j.1365-294X.1997.00267.x.

Ostertag S., Loseto L.L., Snow K., Lam J., Hynes K. & Gillman V. 2018. “That’s how we know they’re healthy”. The inclusions of Indigenous Knowledge in beluga health monitoring in the Inuvialuit Settlement Region. Arctic Science 4, 292–320, doi 10.1139/as-2017-0050.

Palsbøll P.J., Heide-Jørgensen M.P. & Bérubé M. 2002. Analysis of mitochondrial control region nucleotide sequences from Baffin Bay belugas (Delphinapterus leucas): detecting pods or sub-populations? NAMMCO Scientific Publications 4, 39–50, doi: 10.7557/3.2836.

Pearce T.D., Ford J.D., Laidler G.J., Smit B., Duerden R., Allarut M., Andrachuk M., Baryluk S., Dialla A., Elee P., Goose A., Ikummaq T., Joamie E., Kataoyak F., Loring E., Meakin S., Nickels S., Shappa K., Shirley J. & Wandel J. 2009. Community collaboration and climate change research in the Canadian Arctic. Polar Research 28, 10–27, doi: 10.1111/j.1751–8369.2008.00094.x.

Pearce T., Wright H., Notaina R., Kudlak A., Smit B., Ford J.D. & Furgal C. 2011. Transmission of environmental knowledge and land skills among Inuit men in Ulukhaktok, Northwest Territories, Canada. Human Ecology 39, 271–288, doi: 10.1007/s10745-011-9403-1. 2020a. Bolee tysjači moržej smogut dobyt’ morzveroboi Čukotki v etom godu. (More than a thousand walrus can be caught this year.) Accessed on the internet at on 31 August 2021. 2020b. Kvoty na dobyču kitov raspredelili na Čukotke. (Whale quotas distributed in Chukotka.) Accessed on the internet at on 31 August 2021.

Reeves R.R. & Mitchell E. 1987. History of white whale (Delphinapterus leucas) exploitation in eastern Hudson Bay and James Bay. Canadian Special Publications on Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 95. Ottawa: Department of Fisheries and Oceans.

Richard P.R., Heide-Jørgensen M.P., Orr J.R., Dietz R. & Smith T.G. 2001. Summer and autumn movements and habitat use by belugas in the Canadian High Arctic and adjacent areas. Arctic 54, 207–222, doi: 10.14430/arctic782.

Richard P.R. & Pike D.G. 1993. Small whale co-management in the eastern Canadian Arctic: a case history and analysis. Arctic 46, 138–143, doi: 10.14430/arctic1335.

Scharffenberg K., Whalen D., MacPhee S., Marcoux M., Iacozza J., Davoren G. & Loseto L. 2020. Oceanographic, ecological, and socio-economic impacts of an unusual summer storm in the Mackenzie Estuary. Arctic Science 6, 62–76, doi: 10.1139/as-2018-0029.

Sejersen F. 2001. Hunting and management of beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in Greenland: changing strategies to cope with new national and local interests. Arctic 54, 431–443, doi: 10.14430/arctic800.

Sharma R., Loseto L.L., Ostertag S.K., Tomaselli M., Bredtmann M.C., Crill C., Rodriquez-Pinacho C., Schultz D., Jung D., Shrethsa K., Jindal P. & Jenkins E.J. 2018. Qualitative risk assessment of impact of Toxoplasma gondii on health of beluga whales, Delphinapterus leucas from the eastern Beaufort Sea, Northwest Territories. Arctic Science 4, 321–337, doi: 10.1139/as-2017-0037.

Smith A.J., Higdon J.W., Richard P., Orr J., Bernhardt W. & Ferguson S.H. 2017. Beluga whale summer habitat associations in the Nelson River estuary, western Hudson Bay, Canada. PLoS One 12, e0181045, doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0181045.

Snook J., Cunsolo A. & Dale A. 2018. Co-management led research and sharing space on the pathway to Inuit self-determination in research. Northern Public Affairs 6, 52–56.

Snow K., O’Hara S., Esogak D.J., Ostertag S.K. & Loseto L.L. 2016. Our beluga, fish and environment are changing: Traditional Knowledge study on food resources on Kendall Island in the Inuvialuit Settlement Region. Paper presented at the Arctic Observing Summit, 12–18 March, Fairbanks, AK.

St. Aubin D.J., Smith T.G. & Geraci J.R. 1990. Seasonal epidermal moult in beluga whales, Delphinapterus leucas. Canadian Journal of Zoology 58, 359–367, doi: 10.1139/z90-051.

Stevenson M. 1997. Inuit, whalers and cultural persistence: structure in Cumberland Sound and Central Inuit social organization. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Stewart D.B. 2018. Commercial and subsistence catches of beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from Cumberland Sound, Nunavut, 1840–2016. Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 3250. Ottawa: Fisheries and Oceans Canada.

Taylor J.G. 1977. Traditional land use and occupancy by the Labrador Inuit. In C. Brice-Bennett (ed.) 1977. Our footprints are everywhere: Inuit land use and occupancy in Labrador. Pp. 49–58. Nain, NL: Labrador Inuit Association.

Taylor J.G. & Taylor H.R. 1977. Inuit land use and occupancy in the Okak region, 1776–1830. In C. Brice-Bennett (ed.) 1977. Our footprints are everywhere: Inuit land use and occupancy in Labrador. Pp. 59–82. Nain, NL: Labrador Inuit Association.

Thompson L.A., Spoon T.R., Goertz C.E.C., Hobbs R.C. & Romano T.A. 2014. Blow collection as a non-invasive method for measuring cortisol in the beluga (Delphinapterus leucas). PLoS One 9, e114062, doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0114062.

Thomsen M.L. 1993. Local knowledge of the distribution, biology, and hunting of beluga and narwhal: a survey among Inuit hunters in west and north Greenland. Nuuk, Greenland: Greenland Hunters’ and Fishermen’s Association, Greenland Home Rule Authorities, and Inuit Circumpolar Conference.

Turgeon J., Duchesne P., Colbeck G.J., Postma L.D. & Hammill M.O. 2012. Spatiotemporal segregation among summer stocks of beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) despite nuclear gene flow: implication for the endangered belugas in eastern Hudson Bay (Canada). Conservation Genetics 13, 419–433, doi: 10.1007/s10592-011-0294-x.

Tyrrell M. 2007a. Quaqtarmiut and beluga whales: knowledge, practice and the impact of beluga whale management. Cambridge, UK: Scott Polar Research Institute.

Tyrrell M. 2007b. Sentient beings and wildlife resources: Inuit, beluga whales and management regimes in the Canadian Arctic. Human Ecology 35, 575–586, doi: 10.1007/s10745-006-9105-2M.

Tyrrell M. 2008. Nunavik Inuit perspectives on beluga whale management in the Canadian Arctic. Human Organization 67, 322–334, doi: 10.17730/humo.67.3.47826252k0623352.

Waugh D., Pearce T., Ostertag S., Collings P. & Loseto L. 2018. Inuvialuit Traditional Ecological Knowledge of beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) under changing climatic conditions in Tuktoyaktuk, NT. Arctic Science 4, 242–258, doi: 10.1139/as-2017-0034.

Wein E., Freeman M. & Makus J. 1996. Use of and preference for traditional foods among the Belcher Island Inuit. Arctic 49, 256–264, doi: 10.14430/arctic1201.

Westdal K.H., Davies J., MacPherson A., Orr J. & Ferguson S.H. 2016. Behavioural changes in belugas (Delphinapterus leucas) during a killer whale (Orcinus orca) attack in southwest Hudson Bay. Canadian Field-Naturalist 130, 315–319, doi: 10.22621/cfn.v130i4.1925.

Worden E., Pearce T., Gruben M., Ross D., Kowana C. & Loseto L. 2020. Social–ecological changes and implications for understanding the declining beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) harvest in Aklavik, NT. Arctic Science 6, 229–246, doi: 10.1139/AS-2019-0027.

Woshner V.M., O’Hara T.M., Eurell J.A., Wallig M.A., Bratton G.R., Suydam R.S. & Beasley V.R. 2002. Distribution of inorganic mercury in liver and kidney of beluga and bowhead whales through autometallographic development of light microscopic tissue sections. Toxicologic Pathology 30, 209–215, doi: 10.1080/019262302753559542.
How to Cite
Breton-Honeyman, K., Huntington, H. P., Basterfield, M., Campbell, K., Dicker, J., Gray, T., Jakobsen, A. E., Jean-Gagnon, F., Lee, D., Laing, R., Loseto, L., McCarney, P., Noksana Jr., J., Palliser, T., Ruben, L., Tartak, C., Townley, J., & Zdor, E. (2021). Beluga whale stewardship and collaborative research practices among Indigenous peoples in the Arctic. Polar Research, 40(S1).