Ice thickness, growth and salinity in Van Mijenfjorden, Svalbard, Norway
AbstractThis paper describes measurements of ice conditions in the fjord Van Mijenfjorden, Spitsbergen, in the Svalbard Archipelago, between 1998 and 2006. Ice thickness, ice temperatures and ice properties were measured, and simple simulations of oceanic flux were performed. The maximum annual peak ice thickness was measured in 2004: 1.3 m in the inner basin and 1.2 m in the outer basin. The minimum annual peak thickness was 0.72 m in the inner basin and no fast ice in the outer basin, in 2006. The estimated oceanic flux was about 2–5 W m-2 in the outer basin, and was close to zero in the inner basin. Flooding and brine drainage may have caused an overestimation of the oceanic flux. The measurements demonstrate different ice growth mechanisms, and the simplest model (Stefan’s Law with air temperatures and a correction factor) fails to predict the ice growth. Finally, there is reason to believe that the ice conditions were heavier in the 1980s.
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