Five decades of terrestrial and freshwater research at Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard

  • Å.Ø. Pedersen Norwegian Polar Institute, Tromsø, Norway https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9388-7402
  • P. Convey British Antarctic Survey, Natural Environment Research Council, Cambridge, UK; and Department of Zoology, University of Johannesburg, Auckland Park, South Africa
  • K.K. Newsham British Antarctic Survey, Natural Environment Research Council, Cambridge, UK
  • J.B. Mosbacher Norwegian Polar Institute, Tromsø, Norway
  • E. Fuglei Norwegian Polar Institute, Tromsø, Norway
  • V. Ravolainen Norwegian Polar Institute, Tromsø, Norway
  • B.B. Hansen Centre for Biodiversity Dynamics, Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; and Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Trondheim, Norway
  • T.C. Jensen Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Oslo, Norway
  • A. Augusti Research Institute on Terrestrial Ecosystems, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Porano, Italy
  • E.M. Biersma British Antarctic Survey, Natural Environment Research Council, Cambridge, UK; and Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
  • E.J. Cooper Department of Arctic and Marine Biology, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway
  • S.J. Coulson SLU Swedish Species Information Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden
  • G.W. Gabrielsen Norwegian Polar Institute, Tromsø, Norway
  • J.C. Gallet Norwegian Polar Institute, Tromsø, Norway
  • U. Karsten Department of Applied Ecology and Phycology, University of Rostock, Rostock, Germany
  • S.M. Kristiansen Department of Biosciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
  • M.M. Svenning Department of Arctic and Marine Biology, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway
  • A.T. Tveit Department of Arctic and Marine Biology, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway
  • M. Uchida National Institute of Polar Research, Tokyo, Japan; and The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Tokyo, Japan
  • I. Baneschi Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pisa, Italy
  • E. Calizza Department of Environmental Biology, Sapienza University of Rome, Roma, Italy
  • N. Cannone Department of Science and Technology, Insubria University, Como, Italy
  • E.M. de Goede Institute of Environmental Sciences, University of Leiden, Leiden, The Netherlands
  • M. Doveri Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pisa, Italy
  • J. Elster Centre for Polar Ecology, Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia, Třeboň, Czechia
  • M.S. Giamberini Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pisa, Italy
  • K. Hayashi Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, Ibaraki, Japan
  • S.I. Lang Department of Arctic Biology, The University Centre in Svalbard, Longyearbyen, Norway
  • Y.K. Lee Korea Polar Research Institute, Incheon, Republic of Korea
  • T. Nakatsubo Graduate School of Integrated Sciences for Life, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan
  • V. Pasquali Section of Neuroscience, Sapienza University of Rome, Roma, Italy
  • I.M.G. Paulsen Norwegian Polar Institute, Tromsø, Norway
  • C. Pedersen Norwegian Polar Institute, Tromsø, Norway
  • F. Peng China Center for Type Culture Collection, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China
  • A. Provenzale Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pisa, Italy
  • E. Pushkareva Department of Applied Ecology and Phycology, University of Rostock, Rostock, Germany
  • C.A.M. Sandström Arctic Centre, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
  • V. Sklet Norwegian Polar Institute, Tromsø, Norway
  • A. Stach Institute of Geoecology and Geoinformation, Faculty of Geographic and Geological Sciences, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań, Poland
  • M. Tojo Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, Osaka, Japan
  • B. Tytgat Laboratory of Protistology and Aquatic Ecology, Ghent University, Gent, Belgium
  • H. Tømmervik Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Tromsø, Norway
  • D. Velazquez Department of Biology, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • E. Verleyen Laboratory of Protistology and Aquatic Ecology, Ghent University, Gent, Belgium
  • J.M. Welker Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alaska Anchorage, Anchorage, AK, USA; and Ecology and Genetics Research Unit, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
  • Y.-F. Yao State Key Laboratory of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
  • M.J.J.E. Loonen Arctic Centre, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
Keywords: Biogeochemical cycles, climate change, ecosystem structure and functioning, environmental change, High Arctic, human impacts, soil

Abstract

For more than five decades, research has been conducted at Ny-Ålesund, in Svalbard, Norway, to understand the structure and functioning of High-Arctic ecosystems and the profound impacts on them of environmental change. Terrestrial, freshwater, glacial and marine ecosystems are accessible year-round from Ny-Ålesund, providing unique opportunities for interdisciplinary observational and experimental studies along physical, chemical, hydrological and climatic gradients. Here, we synthesize terrestrial and freshwater research at Ny-Ålesund and review current knowledge of biodiversity patterns, species population dynamics and interactions, ecosystem processes, biogeochemical cycles and anthropogenic impacts. There is now strong evidence of past and ongoing biotic changes caused by climate change, including negative effects on populations of many taxa and impacts of rain-on-snow events across multiple trophic levels. While species-level characteristics and responses are well understood for macro-organisms, major knowledge gaps exist for microbes, invertebrates and ecosystem-level processes. In order to fill current knowledge gaps, we recommend (1) maintaining monitoring efforts, while establishing a long-term ecosystem-based monitoring programme; (2) gaining a mechanistic understanding of environmental change impacts on processes and linkages in food webs; (3) identifying trophic interactions and cascades across ecosystems; and (4) integrating long-term data on microbial, invertebrate and freshwater communities, along with measurements of carbon and nutrient fluxes among soils, atmosphere, freshwaters and the marine environment. The synthesis here shows that the Ny-Ålesund study system has the characteristics needed to fill these gaps in knowledge, thereby enhancing our understanding of High-Arctic ecosystems and their responses to environmental variability and change.

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References


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Published
2022-04-19
How to Cite
Pedersen Å.Ø., ConveyP., NewshamK., MosbacherJ., FugleiE., RavolainenV., HansenB., JensenT., AugustiA., BiersmaE., CooperE., CoulsonS., GabrielsenG., GalletJ., KarstenU., KristiansenS., SvenningM., TveitA., UchidaM., BaneschiI., CalizzaE., CannoneN., de GoedeE., DoveriM., ElsterJ., GiamberiniM., HayashiK., LangS., LeeY., NakatsuboT., PasqualiV., PaulsenI., PedersenC., PengF., ProvenzaleA., PushkarevaE., SandströmC., SkletV., StachA., TojoM., TytgatB., TømmervikH., VelazquezD., VerleyenE., WelkerJ., YaoY.-F., & LoonenM. (2022). Five decades of terrestrial and freshwater research at Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard. Polar Research, 41. https://doi.org/10.33265/polar.v41.6310
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Review Articles