The role of aquaria in beluga research and conservation

  • Tracy A. Romano Mystic Aquarium, Research Dept., Mystic, CT, USA
  • Laura A. Thompson Mystic Aquarium, Research Dept., Mystic, CT, USA
  • Maureen V. Driscoll Mystic Aquarium, Research Dept., Mystic, CT, USA
  • Ebru Unal Mystic Aquarium, Research Dept., Mystic, CT, USA
  • Allison D. Tuttle Mystic Aquarium, Zoological Operations, Mystic, CT, USA
  • Gayle Sirpenski Mystic Aquarium, Zoological Operations, Mystic, CT, USA
  • Mary Ellen Mateleska Mystic Aquarium, Education and Conservation, Mystic, CT, USA
  • Dale Wolbrink Mystic Aquarium, Public Affairs, Mystic, CT, USA
Keywords: education, husbandry, whales, recovery and management, Delphinapterus leucas, zoos

Abstract

Aquaria that care for and maintain belugas (Delphinapterus leucas) under professional care have the opportunity to contribute to the conservation of wild belugas through research, expertise in animal care and husbandry, and engaging and educating the public about threats to the species’ health and population sustainability. In an aquarium setting, belugas can be studied under controlled conditions, with known variables that are often difficult to discern when studying wild belugas. Information on nutrition, health status and environmental parameters can be easily obtained in a controlled setting. Biological samples are collected from professionally trained whales that voluntarily participate in informative experimental paradigms. Research studies in aquaria seek to contribute to the recovery and management of endangered beluga populations, such as those in Cook Inlet. Mystic Aquarium’s efforts are presented as a case study. Key research priorities address action items in the Cook Inlet Beluga Recovery Plan and include: (1) understanding the beluga immune system, microbial communities, pathogens and disease; (2) development of non-invasive methods for assessing reproductive status, body condition and health in wild whales; (3) investigation of diving physiology and the impact of altered dive patterns on health; (4) understanding reproduction, a key to recovery and sustainability of wild populations; (5) development and testing of new technologies for tracking and monitoring whales and habitat use; and (6) understanding how noise affects beluga hearing, behaviour and physiology. Expertise in animal handling, behaviour and nutrition contribute to rescue, rehabilitation and capture release efforts. Moreover, ‘students’ of all ages have the opportunity to be engaged, educated and contribute to beluga conservation.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References


Acevedo-Whitehouse K., Rocha-Gosselin A. & Gendron D. 2010. A novel non-invasive tool for disease surveillance of free-ranging whales and its relevance to conservation programs. Animal Conservation 13, 217–225, doi: 10.1111/j.1469-1795.2009.00326.x.


Aguilar Soto N., Johnson M., Madsen P.T., Tyack P.L., Bocconcell A. & Borsani J.F. 2006. Does intense ship noise disrupt foraging in deep-diving Cuvier’s beaked whales (Ziphius Cavirostris)? Marine Mammal Science 22, 690–699, doi: 10.1111/j.1748-7692.2006.00044.x.


Apprill A., Miller C.A., Moore M.J., Durban J.W., Fearnbach H. & Barrett-Lennard L.G. 2017. Extensive core microbiome in drone-captured whale blow supports a framework for health monitoring. mSystems 2, e00119–17, doi: 10.1128/mSystems.00119-17.


Bossart G.D., Romano T.A., Peden-Adams M.M., Rice C.D., Fair P.A., Goldstein J.D., Kilpatrick D., Cammen K. & Reif J.S. 2008. The hematological, biochemical, and immunological findings in Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) with orogenital papillomas. Aquatic Mammals 34, 166–177, doi: 10.1578/AM.34.2.2008.166.


Bossart G., Romano T.A., Peden-Adams M.M., Schaefer A.M., Rice C.D., Fair P.A. & Rice J.S. 2019. Comparative innate and adaptive immune responses in Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) with viral, bacterial and fungal infections. Frontiers in Immunology 10, article no. 1125, doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2019.01125.


Brando S. 2010. Advances in husbandry training in marine mammal care programs. International Journal of Comparative Psychology 23, 777–791.


Burek K.A., Gulland M.D. & O’Hara T.M. 2008. Effects of climate change on Arctic marine mammal health. Ecological Applications 18, S126-S134, doi: 10.1890/06-0553.1.


Castellote M., Mooney T.A., Quakenbush L., Hobbs R., Goertz C.E. & Gaglione E. 2014. Baseline hearing abilities and variability in wild beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas). Journal of Experimental Biology 217, 1682–1691, doi: 10.1242/jeb.093252.


Castellote M., Thayre B., Mahoney M., Mondragon J., Lammers M.O. & Small R.J. 2018. Anthropogenic noise and the endangered Cook Inlet beluga whale, Delphinapterus leucas, acoustic considerations for management. Marine Fisheries Review 80, 63–88, doi: 10.7755/MFR.80.3.3.


Cheny B., Well R.S., Barton T.R. & Thompson P.M. 2017. Laser photogrammetry reveals variation in growth and early survival in free-ranging bottlenose dolphins. Animal Conservation 21, 2532–261, doi: 10.1111/acv.12384.


Citta J.J., Suydam R.S., Quakenbush L.T., Frost K.J. & O’Corry-Crowe G.M. 2013. Dive behavior of eastern Chukchi beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) 1998–2008. Arctic 66, 389–406.


Corkeron P.J. 1995. Humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in Hervey Bay, Queensland: behavior and responses to whale-watching vessels. Canadian Journal of Zoology 73, 1290–1299, doi: 10.1139/z95-153.


De Guise S.J, Erickson K., Blanchard M., DiMolfetto L., Lepper H., Wang J., Stott J.L. & Ferrick D.A. 2002. Monoclonal antibodies to lymphocyte surface antigens for cetacean homologues to CD2, CD19 and CD21. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 84, 209–221, doi: 10.1016/S0165-2427(01)00409-3.


De Guise S.J., Ross P.S., Osterhaus A.D., Martineau D., Béland P. & Fournier M. 1997. Immune functions in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas): evaluation of natural killer cell activity. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 58, 345–354, doi: 10.1016/S0165-2427(97)00035-4.


Durban J.W., Fearnback H., Barrett-Lennard L.G., Perryman W.L. & Leroi D.J. 2018. Photogrammetry of killer whales using a small hexacopter launched at sea. Journal of Unmanned Vehicle Systems 3, 131–135, doi: 10.1139/juvs-2015-0020.


Fair P.A. & Becker P.R. 2000. Review of stress in marine mammals. Journal of Aquatic Ecosystem Stress and Recovery 7, 335–354, doi: 10.1023/A:1009968113079.


Fair P.A., Romano T.A., Schaefer A.M., Reif J.S., Bossart G.D., Houde M., Muir D., Adams J., Rice C., Hulsey T.C. & Peden-Adams M. 2013. Associations between perfluoroalkyl compounds and immune and clinical chemistry parameters in highly exposed bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus). Environmental Toxicology Chemistry 32, 736–746, doi: 10.1002/etc.2122.


Fair P., Schaefer A.D., Houser D.S., Bossart G.D., Romano T.A., Champagne C.D., Stott J.L., Rice C.D., White N. & Reif J.S. 2017. The environment as a driver of immune and endocrine responses in dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). PLoS One 12, e0176202, doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0176202.


Fair P.A., Schaefer A.M., Reif J.S., Bossart G.D. & Romano T.A. 2014. Stress response of wild bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) during capture–release health assessment studies. General Comparative Endocrinology 9, 203–212, doi: 10.1016/j.ygcen.2014.07.002.


Flower J.E., Allender M.C., Giovanelli R.P., Summers S.D., Spoon T.R., St. Leger J.A., Goertz C.E., Dunn J.E., Romano T.A., Hobbs R.C. & Tuttle A.D. 2015. Circulating concentrations of thyroid hormone in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas): influence of age, sex and season. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 46, 456–467, doi: 10.1638/2014-0127.1.


Ford J.D., Smit B. & Wandel J. 2006. Vulnerability to climate change in the Arctic: a case study from Arctic Bay, Canada. Global Environmental Change 16, 145–160, doi: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2005.11.007.


Ginsberg J.R. & Milner-Gulland E.J. 1994. Sex-biased harvesting and population dynamics in ungulates: implications for conservation and sustainable use. Conservation Biology 8, 157–166, doi: 10.1046/j.1523-1739.1994.08010157.x.


Goertz C.E.C., Woodie K., Long B., Hartman L., Gaglione E., Christen D., Clauss T., Flower J., Tuttle A., Richard C., Romano T., Schmitt T., Otjen E., Osborn S., Aibel S., Binder T., Van Bonn W., Castellote M., Mooney T.A., Dennison-Gibby S., Burek-Huntington K. & Rowles T.K. 2021. Stranded beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) calf response and care: reports of two cases with different outcomes. Polar Research 40, article no. 5514, doi: 10.33265/polar.v39.5514.


Goldbogen J.A., Cade D.E., Boersma A.T., Calambokidis J., Kahane-Rapport S.R., Segre P.S., Stimpert A.K. & Friedlander A.S. 2017. Using digital tags with integrated video and inertial sensors to study the moving morphology and associated function in large aquatic vertebrates. Anatomical Record 300, 1935–1941, doi: 10.1002/ar.23650.


Halliday W.D., Insley S.J., Hilliard R.C., de Jong T. & Pine M.K. 2017. Potential impacts of shipping noise on marine mammals in the western Canadian Arctic. Marine Pollution Bulletin 123, 73–82, doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2017.09.027.


Harkins H. 2012. Point Lay Educational and Cultural Exchange Program October 2011 evaluation report. Unpublished.


Hauser D.D.W. 2016. Beluga whale distribution, migration, and behavior in a changing Pacific Arctic. PhD thesis, University of Washington.


Hauser D.D.W., Laidre K.L., Parker-Stetter S.L., Horne J.K., Suydam R.S. & Richard P.R. 2015. Regional diving behavior of Pacific Arctic beluga whales Delphinapterus leucas and possible associations with prey. Marine Ecology Progress Series 541, 245–264, doi: 10.3354/meps11530.


Hauser D.D.W., Laidre K.L., Suydam R.S. & Richard P.R. 2014. Population-specific home ranges and migration timing of Pacific Arctic beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas). Polar Biology 37, 1171–1183, doi: 10.1007/s00300-014-1510-1.


Hauser D.D.W., Laidre K.L., Stern H.L., Suydam R.S. & Richard P.R. 2018. Indirect effects of sea ice loss on summer–fall habitat and behaviour for sympatric populations of an Arctic marine predator. Biodiversity Research 24, 791–799, doi: 10.1111/ddi.12722.


Hunt K., Rolland R. & Kraus S. 2013. Detection of steroid and thyroid hormones via immunoassays of North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) respiratory vapor. Marine Mammal Science 30, 796–809, doi: 10.1111/mms.12073.


Isojunno S., Sadykova D., DeRuiter S., Cure C., Visser F., Thomas L., Miller P.J.O. & Harris C.M. 2017. Individual, ecological and anthropogenic influences on activity budgets of long-finned pilot whales. Ecosphere 8, e02044, doi: 10.1002/ecs2.2044.


Jaquet N. 2006. A simple photogrammetric technique to measure sperm whales at sea. Marine Mammal Science 22, 862–879, doi: 10.1111/j.1748-7692.2006.00060.x.


Jensen E., Moss A. & Gusset M. 2017. Quantifying long-term impact of zoo and aquarium visits on biodiversity-related learning outcomes. Zoo Biology 36, 294–297, doi: 10.1002/zoo.21372.


Kennedy A.S., Zerbini A.N., Rone B.K. & Clapham P.J. 2014. Individual variation in movements of satellite-tracked humpback whales Megaptera novaeangliae in the eastern Aleutian Island and Bering Sea. Endangered Species Research 23, 187–195, doi: 10.3354/esr00570.


Keogh M.J., Spoon T.R., Ridgway S.H., Jensen E., Van Bonn W. & Romano T.A. 2011. Simultaneous measurement of phagocytosis and respiratory burst of leukocytes in whole blood from bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) utilizing flow cytometry. Veterinary Immunology Immunopathology 144, 468–475, doi: 10.1016/j.vetimm.2011.08.017.


Kovacs K.M., Lydersen C., Overland J.E. & Moore S.E. 2011. Impacts of changing sea-ice conditions on Arctic marine mammals. Marine Biodiversity 41, 181–194, doi 10.1007/s12526-010-0061-0.


Kuczaj S. & Xitco M. 2002. It takes more than fish: the psychology of marine mammal training. Journal of Comparative Psychology 15, 186–200.


Laplanche C., Marques T.A. & Thomas L. 2015. Tracking marine mammals in 3D using electronic tag data. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 6, 987–996, doi: 10.1111/2041-210X.12373.


Lise S., Petter K., Fhalman A., Frans-Peter L., Tyack P. & Miller P. 2012. Changes in dive behavior during naval sonar exposure in killer whales, long-finned pilot whales, and sperm whales. Frontiers in Physiology 3, article no. 400, doi: 10.3389/fphys.2012.00400.


Lusseau D. 2003. Male and female bottlenose dolphins Tursiops spp. have different strategies to avoid interactions with tour boats in doubtful sound, New Zealand. Marine Ecology Progress Series 257, 267–274, doi: 10.3354/meps257267.


Mancia A., Lundqvist M., Romano T., Peden-Adams M., Fair P., Kindy M., Ellis B., Gattoni-Celli S., McKillen D., Trent H., Chen Y., Almeida J., Gross P., Chapman R. & Warr G. 2007. A dolphin peripheral blood leukocyte cDNA microarray for studies of immune function and stress reactions. Developmental Comparative Immunology 31, 520–529, 10.1016/j.dci.2006.07.011.


Meegan J., Dunn J.L., Venn-Watson S.K., Smith C.R., Sidor I., Jensen E.D., Van Bonn W.G., Pugh R., Ficht T., Adams L.G., Nielsen K. & Romano T.A. 2012. Serologic response in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) infected with Brucella sp. using a dolphin-specific indirect ELISA. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 102, 73–85, doi: 10.3354/dao02528.


Meegan J., Field C., Sidor I., Romano T., Casinghino S., Smith C.R., Kashinksy L., Fair P.A., Bossart G., Wells R. & Dunn J.L. 2010. Development, validation, and utilization of a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibodies against Brucella species in marine mammals. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 22, 856–862, doi: 10.1177/104063871002200603.


Mellish S., Pearson E.L., McLeod E.M., Tuckey M.R. & Ryan J.C. 2019. What goes up must come down: an evaluation of a zoo conservation-education program for balloon litter on visitor understanding, attitudes, and behaviour. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 27, 1393–1415, doi: 10.1002/zoo.21372.


Miller L.J., Zeigler-Hill V., Mellen J., Koeppel J., Greer T. & Kuczaj S. 2013. Dolphin shows and interaction programs: benefits for conservation education? Zoo Biology 32, 45–53, doi: 10.1002/zoo.21016.


Mooney T.A., Castellote M., Quakenbush L., Hobbs R., Gaglione E. & Goertz C. 2018. Variation in hearing within a wild population of beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas). Journal of Experimental Biology 221, article no. jeb171959, doi: 10.1242/jeb.171959.


Moore S.E. & Huntington H.P. 2008. Arctic marine mammals and climate change: impacts and resilience. Ecological Applications 18, S157-S165, doi: 10.1890/06-0571.1.


NMFS (National Marine Fisheries Service) 2016. Recovery plan for the Cook Inlet beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas). Juneau, AK: National Marine Fisheries Service, Alaska Region, Protected Resources Division.


Nawojchik R. & St. Aubin D.J. 2003. Movements and dive behavior of two stranded, rehabilitated long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melas) in the Northwest Atlantic. Marine Mammal Science 19, 232–239, doi: 10.1111/j.1748-7692.2003.tb01105.x.


Nowacek D., Christiansen F., Bejder L., Goldboye J.A. & Friedlander A.S. 2016. Studying cetacean behavior: new technological approaches and conservation applications. Conservation Behaviour 120, 235–244, doi: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2016.07.019.


Pearson E.L., Lowry R., Dorrian J. & Litchfield C.A. 2014. Evaluating the conservation impact of an innovative zoo-based educational campaign: ‘don’t palm us off’ for orangutan conservation. Zoo Biology 33, 184–196, doi: 10.1002/zoo.21120.


Putland R.L., Merchant N.D., Farcas A. & Radford, CA. 2017. Vessel noise cuts down communication space for vocalizing fish and marine mammals. Global Change Biology 24, 1708–1721, doi: 10.1111/gcb.13996.


Ramirez K. 1999. Animal training: successful animal management through positive reinforcement. Chicago: Shedd Aquarium Press.


Ready Z.C., Flower J.E., Collins J.E., Kochin E. & Williams C.R. 2021. Total ear canal ablation and lateral bulla osteotomy (TECA-LBO) in Atlantic harbor seals (Phoca vitulina concolor) for successful surgical management of otitis media. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 52, 827–837, doi: 10.1638/2020-0060.


Reif J.S., Peden-Adams M.M., Romano T.A., Rice C.D., Fair P.A. & Bossart G.D. 2009. Immune dysfunction in Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) with lobomycosis. Medical Mycology 47, 125–135, doi: 10.1080/13693780802178493.


Richard J.T., Dunn J.L., Romano T.A., Sartini B.L., Schmitt T.L., Haulena M. & Vezzi N. 2016. Seasonal variation in testes size and density detected in belugas (Delphinapterus leucas) using ultrasonography. Journal of Mammalogy 98, 874–884, doi: 10.1093/jmammal/gyx032.


Richard J.T., Levine R., Romano T.A. & Sartini B.L. 2021. Minimally invasive physiological correlates of social behaviour in belugas (Delphinapterus leucas) under human care. Polar Research 40, article no. 5504, doi: 10.33265/polar.v40.5504.


Richard J.T., Robeck T.R., Osborn S.D., Naples L., McDermott A., LaForge R., Romano T.A. & Sartini B.L. 2017. Testosterone and progesterone concentrations are biologically relevant in belugas (Delphinapterus leucas). General and Comparative Endocrinology 246, 183–193, doi: 10.1016/j.ygcen.2016.12.006.


Richardson W.J. & Wursig B. 1997. Influence of man-made noise and other human actions on cetacean behavior. Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology 29, 183–209, doi: 10.1080/10236249709379006.


Rolland R.M., Hunt K.E., Kraus S.D. & Wasser S.K. 2005. Assessing reproductive status of right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) using fecal hormone metabolites. General and Comparative Endocrinology 142, 308–317, doi: 10.1016/j.ygcen.2005.02.002.


Romano T.A., Felten S.Y., Olschowka J.A. & Felten D.L. 1993. A microscopic investigation of the lymphoid organs of the beluga, Delphinapterus leucas. Journal of Morphology 215, 261–287, doi: 10.1002/jmor.1052150307.


Romano T.A., Felten S.Y., Olschowka J.A. & Felten D.L. 1994. Noradrenergic and peptidergic innervation of lymphoid organs in the beluga, Delphinapterus leucas: an anatomical link between the nervous and immune systems. Journal of Morphology 221, 243–259, doi: 10.1002/jmor.1052210302.


Romano T.A., Keogh M.J., Schlundt C., Carder D. & Finneran J. 2004. Anthropogenic sound and marine mammal health: measures of the nervous and immune systems before and after intense sound. Canandian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 61, 1124–1134, doi: 10.1139/F04-055.


Romano T.A., Olschowka J.A., Felten S.Y., Quaranta V., Ridgway S.H. & Felten D.L. 2002. Immune response, stress, and environment: implications for cetaceans. In C.J. Pfeiffer (ed.): Cell and molecular biology of marine mammals. Pp. 253–279. Melbourne, FL: Krieger Publishing Co.


Romano T.A., Ridgway S.H., Felten D.L. & Quaranta V. 1999. Molecular cloning and characterization of CD4 in an aquatic mammal, the white whale, Delphinapterus leucas. Immunogenetics 49, 376–383, doi: 10.1007/s002510050510.


Romano T.A., Ridgway S.H. & Quaranta V. 1992. MHC class II molecules on peripheral blood lymphocytes of the bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus. Journal of Experimental Zoology 263, 96–104, doi: 10.1002/jez.1402630110.


Schaffar A., Madon B., Garrigue V. & Constantine R. 2009. Avoidance of whale watching boats by humpback whales in their main breeding ground in New Caledonia. SC/61/WW/6. Cambridge: International Whaling Commission.


Schmitt T., St. Aubin D.J., Schaeffer A. & Dunn J.L. 2010. Baseline, diurnal variations, and stress-induced changes of stress hormones in three captive beluga whales Delphinapterus leucas. Marine Mammal Science 26, 635–647, doi: 10.1111/j.1748-7692.2009.00366.x.


Skibins J.C., Powell R.B. & Hallo J.C. 2013. Charisma and conservation: charismatic megafauna’s influence on safari and zoo tourists’ pro-conservation behaviors. Biodiversity and Conservation 22, 959–982, doi: 10.1007/s10531-013-0462-z.


Spoon T.R. & Romano T.A. 2012. Neuroimmunological response of beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) to translocation and a novel social environment. Brain, Behavior and Immunity 26, 122–131, doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2011.08.003.


St. Aubin D.J., Forney K.A., Chivers S.J, Scott M.J., Danil K., Romano T.A., Wells R. & Gulland F.M.D. 2013. Hematological, serum and plasma chemical constituents in pantropical spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuata) following chase, encirclement, and tagging. Marine Mammal Science 29, 14–35, doi: 10.1111/j.1748-7692.2011.00536.x.


Stubberud M.W., Vindenes Y.U., Vollesta L.A, Winfield I.J., Stenseth N.C. & Langangen O. 2019. Effects of size- and sex-selective harvesting: an integral projection model approach. Ecology and Evolution 9, 12556–12570, doi: 10.1002/ece3.5719.


Tarlow E.M. & Blumstein D.T. 2007. Evaluating methods to quantify anthropogenic stressors on wild animals. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 102, 429–451, doi: 10.1016/j.applanim.2006.05.040.


Tausk F., Elenkov I. & Moynihan J. 2008. Psychoneuroimmunology. Dertamatologic Therapy 21, 22–31, doi: 10.1111/j.1529-8019.2008.00166.x.


Thompson L.A. & Romano T.A. 2015. Beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) granulocytes and monocytes display variable responses to in vitro pressure exposures. Frontiers in Physiology 6, article no. 128, doi: 10.3389/fphys.2015.00128.


Thompson L.A. & Romano T.A. 2016. Pressure induced changes in adaptive immune function in belugas (Delphinapterus leucas); implications for dive physiology and health. Frontiers in Physiology 7, article no. 442, doi: 10.3389/fphys.2016.00442.


Thompson L.A. & Romano T.A. 2021. The immune response and diving: conservation considerations for belugas (Delphinapterus leucas) in a changing Arctic environment. Polar Research 40, article no. 5499, doi: 10.33265/polar.v40.5499.


Thompson L.A., Spoon T.R., Goertz C.E., Hobbs R.C. & Romano T.A. 2014. Blow collection as a non-invasive method for measuring cortisol in the beluga (Delphinapterus leucas). PLoS One 9, e114062, doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0114062.


Tyack P.L., Zimmer W.M.X., Moretti D., Southall B.L., Claridge D.E., Durban J.W., Clark C.W., D’Amico A., DiMarzio N., Jarvis S., McCarthy E., Morrisey R., Ward J. & Boyd I.L. 2011. Beaked whales respond to simulated and actual navy sonar. PLoS One 6, e17009, doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0017009.


Tyson-Moore R., Douglass D., Nollens H., Croft L. & Wells R. 2020. Post-release monitoring of a stranded and rehabilitated short-finned pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus) reveals current-assisted travel. Aquatic Mammals 46, 200–214, doi: 10.1578/AM.46.2.2020.200.


Unal E., Goertz C.E.C., Hobbs R.C., Suydam R. & Romano T. 2018. Investigation of molecular biomarkers as potential indicators of health in wild belugas (Delphinapterus leucas). Marine Biology 165, article no. 182, doi: 10.1007/s00227-018-3439-3.


Unal E. & Romano T.A. 2021. Of whales and genes: unraveling the physiological response to stressors in belugas (Delphinapterus leucas) at the molecular level. Journal of Zoological and Botanical Gardens 2, 559–575, doi: 10.3390/jzbg2040040.


Vacquie-Garcia J., Lydersen C., Ims R.A. & Kovacs K.M. 2018. Habitats and movement patterns of white whales Delphinapterus leucas in Svalbard, Norway in a changing climate. Movement Ecology 6, article no. 21, doi: 10.1186/s40462-018-0139-z.


Van Cise A., Wade P.R., Goertz C.E., Burek-Huntington K., Parsons K.M., Clauss T., Hobbs R.C. & Apprill A. 2020. Skin microbiome of beluga whales: spatial, temporal, and health-related dynamics. Animal Microbiome 2, article no. 39, doi: 10.1186/s42523-020-00057-1.


Vergara V., Michaud R., Moisan M., Christen D., Lorenz-Flammer K., Aibel S., Muzzy M., Romano T.A., Justice K. & Sanchez S. 2019. A multi-institutional photogrammetry validation study with beluga whales under human care. Paper presented at the Second International Workshop on Beluga Whale Research and Conservation, 12–14 March, Mystic, CT, USA.


Wade P., Heide-Horgensen M.P., Shelden K., Barlow J., Carretta J., Durban J., LeDuc R., Munger L., Rankin S., Sauter A. & Stinchcomb C. 2006. Acoustic detection and satellite –tracking leads to discovery of rare concentration of endangered North Pacific right whales. Biology Letters 2, 417–419, doi: 10.1098/rsbl.2006.0460.


Wade P.R., Reeves R.R. & Mesnick S.L. 2012. Social and behavioural factors in cetaceans responses to overexploitation: are odontocetes less “resilient” than mysticetes? Journal of Marine Biology 2012, article no. 567276, doi: 10.1155/2012/567276.


Watt C.A., Orr J. & Ferguson S.H. 2016. A shift in foraging behaviour of beluga whales Delphinapterus leucas from the threatened Cumberland Sound population may reflect a changing Arctic food web. Endangered Species Research 31, 259–270, doi: 10.3354/esr00768.


Webster T., Dawson S. & Slootem E. 2010. A simple laser photogrammetry technique for measuring Hector’s dolphins (Cephalorhynchus hectori) in the field. Marine Mammal Science 26, 296–308, doi: 10.1111/j.1748-7692.2009.00326.x.


Westen T.J. & Larsen S.L. 2015. The Undergraduate Research Student Self-assessment (URSSA): validation for use in program evaluation. Life Science Education 14, article no. ar33, doi: 10.1187/cbe.14-11-0206.
Published
2021-11-26
How to Cite
Romano, T. A., Thompson, L. A., Driscoll, M. V., Unal, E., Tuttle, A. D., Sirpenski, G., Mateleska, M. E., & Wolbrink, D. (2021). The role of aquaria in beluga research and conservation. Polar Research, 40(S1). https://doi.org/10.33265/polar.v40.5567